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Morphology, Part 3. HU2910 Fall 2009. WPF 18) Borrowing. (from foreign languages; sounds often nativized to English pronunciation rules) rouge, hors d’oeuvres tornado, taco vodka dandelion (from Fr. dents de lion ). Borrowing: whence & when?. Celts (~2500 BCE)

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morphology part 3

Morphology, Part 3

HU2910

Fall 2009

wpf 18 borrowing
WPF 18) Borrowing

(from foreign languages; sounds often nativized to English pronunciation rules)

rouge, hors d’oeuvres

tornado, taco

vodka

dandelion (from Fr. dents de lion)

borrowing whence when
Borrowing: whence & when?

Celts (~2500 BCE)

Romans (~50-450 CE)

Anglo-Saxons (449+)

Norsemen (700-900)

Normans [French] (1066…)

Latin & Greek [Renaissance] (1500+)

Colonial borrowings (1600+)

1000 most common english words
1000 Most Common English Words

61.7% had Old English origins

(Anglo-Saxon-Northern Germanic)

30.9% French

2.9 % Latin

1.7% Scandinavian

1.3% mixed

0.3% Low German and Dutch

borrowed into english
Borrowed into English
  • French: art, beauty, butcher, captain, carpenter, cartoon, cattle, charity, chivalry, color, county, design, dress, fork, govern, lingerie, navy, painter, passion, reign, saint, soldier, table, troops
borrowed into english1
Borrowed into English
  • French: art, beauty, butcher, captain, carpenter, cartoon, cattle, charity, chivalry, color, county, design, dress, fork, govern, lingerie, navy, painter, passion, reign, saint, soldier, table, troops
  • Latin: affidavit, animal, clerk, coaxial, diet, fission, geography, logic, memorandum, neutron, penicillin, posse, priest, spectrum, sulfur, surgeon, veto
borrowed into english2
Borrowed into English
  • Scandinavian: skirt, sky, egg, gate, them, their, they, thing, billow, by-law, clumsy, doze, fiord, law, nag, outlaw, ski
borrowed into english3
Borrowed into English
  • Scandinavian: skirt, sky, egg, gate, them, their, they, thing, billow, by-law, clumsy, doze, fiord, law, nag, outlaw, ski
  • Greek: adenoids, botany, catastrophe, comedy, dialogue, drama, episode, osteopathy, pediatrics, physiology, psychiatry, scene, telegraph, theater
slide9
Spanish: adobe, alfalfa, burro, bronco, cafeteria, canyon, cargo, cockroach, coyote, cigar, guerilla, mosquito, renegade, rodeo, tornado, tuna, vanilla
slide10
Spanish: adobe, alfalfa, burro, bronco, cafeteria, canyon, cargo, cockroach, coyote, cigar, guerilla, mosquito, renegade, rodeo, tornado, tuna, vanilla
  • Italian: attitude, balcony, fiasco, isolate, motto, opera, piano, soprano, studio, tempo, umbrella
slide11
Arabic:
  • Chinese
  • Indian (subcontinent) languages:
slide12
Arabic: alcohol, algebra, algorithm, gazelle, giraffe, harem, lute, mosque, sultan
  • Chinese: tea, mandarin, serge, kowtow
  • Indian (subcontinent) languages:

khaki, bandanna, bungalow, calico, curry, indigo, jungle, loot, pajama, sandal

slide14
Native American languages: hickory, pecan, squash, chipmunk, skunk, caucus, totem, mackinaw, tomahawk, igloo, kayak, podunk
  • Yiddish: chutzpa, klutz, oy vey, schlep, schmuck
borrowed into english later1
Borrowed into English (later)
  • Dutch: bow, buoy, commodore, cruise, curl, dock, freight, hops, keel, leak, lighter, pump, scour, stripe
  • German: hum, loafer, noodle, ouch, poke, delicatessen, frankfurter, pretzel, kindergarten, wunderkind, schadefreude, gesundheit
anglo saxon french doublets
Anglo-Saxon & French doublets

Animal Food

Cow

Sheep

Pig

Chicken

Deer

anglo saxon french doublets1
Anglo-Saxon & French doublets

Animal Food

Cow (< boeuf)

Sheep (< mouton)

Pig (< porc)

Chicken (< poulet)

Deer (< veneson)

borrowed into japanese
Borrowed into Japanese

AnimalFood

ushi ‘cow’ gyu-niku ‘beef’

(Japanese) (from Chinese)

borrowed into japanese1
Borrowed into Japanese

AnimalFood

ushi ‘cow’ gyu-niku ‘beef’

(Japanese) (from Chinese)

But also:

gohan ‘rice’ ___?___

(in a bowl, w/

chopsticks)

borrowed into japanese2
Borrowed into Japanese

AnimalFood

ushi ‘cow’ gyu-niku ‘beef’

(Japanese) (from Chinese)

But also:

gohan ‘rice’ raisu ‘rice’

(in a bowl, w/ (on a plate, w/ a spoon)

chopsticks)

nativization
Nativization

(from foreign languages; sounds often made to fit English sound rules)

Japanese: karaoke

original Japanese: [ka‰aok´]

either: [k˙´®ioki]

[k˙\®oki]

nativization1
Nativization

(from foreign languages; sounds often made to fit English sound rules)

Japanese: karate

[ka‰at´]

(note lack of aspiration)

American English: [k˙\®a‰i]

japanese phonotactics cvcv n
Japanese phonotactics: CVCV (+n)

Waado purosesaa > waa puro

Jiinzu pantsu > jii pan

Purofesho-naru resuringu > _______

Sekusharu harasumento > ________

___________________ > Rimo kon

morphological reshaping
Morphological reshaping

Dropping English inflections

  • Kondensu miruku
  • Sumo-ku sa-mon
  • San garasu
  • Pajama
  • Furai pan
  • Superu
morphological reshaping1
Morphological reshaping

Adding Japanese endings

  • Panic: paniku-ru
  • Sabotage: sabo-ru
  • Demonstration: demo-ru
  • Escalate: esukare-to <suru>
  • Fry: furai <suru>
  • Come-back kamubakku <suru>
  • Now: nau-i
  • Chic: shikku-na
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