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Morphology, Part 3. HU2910 Fall 2009. WPF 18) Borrowing. (from foreign languages; sounds often nativized to English pronunciation rules) rouge, hors d’oeuvres tornado, taco vodka dandelion (from Fr. dents de lion ). Borrowing: whence & when?. Celts (~2500 BCE)

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Morphology, Part 3

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Morphology part 3

Morphology, Part 3

HU2910

Fall 2009


Wpf 18 borrowing

WPF 18) Borrowing

(from foreign languages; sounds often nativized to English pronunciation rules)

rouge, hors d’oeuvres

tornado, taco

vodka

dandelion (from Fr. dents de lion)


Borrowing whence when

Borrowing: whence & when?

Celts (~2500 BCE)

Romans (~50-450 CE)

Anglo-Saxons (449+)

Norsemen (700-900)

Normans [French] (1066…)

Latin & Greek [Renaissance] (1500+)

Colonial borrowings (1600+)


1000 most common english words

1000 Most Common English Words

61.7% had Old English origins

(Anglo-Saxon-Northern Germanic)

30.9% French

2.9 % Latin

1.7% Scandinavian

1.3% mixed

0.3% Low German and Dutch


Borrowed into english

Borrowed into English

  • French: art, beauty, butcher, captain, carpenter, cartoon, cattle, charity, chivalry, color, county, design, dress, fork, govern, lingerie, navy, painter, passion, reign, saint, soldier, table, troops


Borrowed into english1

Borrowed into English

  • French: art, beauty, butcher, captain, carpenter, cartoon, cattle, charity, chivalry, color, county, design, dress, fork, govern, lingerie, navy, painter, passion, reign, saint, soldier, table, troops

  • Latin: affidavit, animal, clerk, coaxial, diet, fission, geography, logic, memorandum, neutron, penicillin, posse, priest, spectrum, sulfur, surgeon, veto


Borrowed into english2

Borrowed into English

  • Scandinavian: skirt, sky, egg, gate, them, their, they, thing, billow, by-law, clumsy, doze, fiord, law, nag, outlaw, ski


Borrowed into english3

Borrowed into English

  • Scandinavian: skirt, sky, egg, gate, them, their, they, thing, billow, by-law, clumsy, doze, fiord, law, nag, outlaw, ski

  • Greek: adenoids, botany, catastrophe, comedy, dialogue, drama, episode, osteopathy, pediatrics, physiology, psychiatry, scene, telegraph, theater


Morphology part 3

  • Spanish: adobe, alfalfa, burro, bronco, cafeteria, canyon, cargo, cockroach, coyote, cigar, guerilla, mosquito, renegade, rodeo, tornado, tuna, vanilla


Morphology part 3

  • Spanish: adobe, alfalfa, burro, bronco, cafeteria, canyon, cargo, cockroach, coyote, cigar, guerilla, mosquito, renegade, rodeo, tornado, tuna, vanilla

  • Italian: attitude, balcony, fiasco, isolate, motto, opera, piano, soprano, studio, tempo, umbrella


Morphology part 3

  • Arabic:

  • Chinese

  • Indian (subcontinent) languages:


Morphology part 3

  • Arabic: alcohol, algebra, algorithm, gazelle, giraffe, harem, lute, mosque, sultan

  • Chinese: tea, mandarin, serge, kowtow

  • Indian (subcontinent) languages:

    khaki, bandanna, bungalow, calico, curry, indigo, jungle, loot, pajama, sandal


Morphology part 3

  • Native American languages:

  • Yiddish:


Morphology part 3

  • Native American languages: hickory, pecan, squash, chipmunk, skunk, caucus, totem, mackinaw, tomahawk, igloo, kayak, podunk

  • Yiddish: chutzpa, klutz, oy vey, schlep, schmuck


Borrowed into english later

Borrowed into English (later)

  • Dutch:

  • German:


Borrowed into english later1

Borrowed into English (later)

  • Dutch: bow, buoy, commodore, cruise, curl, dock, freight, hops, keel, leak, lighter, pump, scour, stripe

  • German: hum, loafer, noodle, ouch, poke, delicatessen, frankfurter, pretzel, kindergarten, wunderkind, schadefreude, gesundheit


Anglo saxon french doublets

Anglo-Saxon & French doublets

AnimalFood

Cow

Sheep

Pig

Chicken

Deer


Anglo saxon french doublets1

Anglo-Saxon & French doublets

AnimalFood

Cow (< boeuf)

Sheep (< mouton)

Pig (< porc)

Chicken (< poulet)

Deer (< veneson)


Borrowed into japanese

Borrowed into Japanese

AnimalFood

ushi‘cow’gyu-niku ‘beef’

(Japanese)(from Chinese)


Borrowed into japanese1

Borrowed into Japanese

AnimalFood

ushi‘cow’gyu-niku ‘beef’

(Japanese)(from Chinese)

But also:

gohan ‘rice’ ___?___

(in a bowl, w/

chopsticks)


Borrowed into japanese2

Borrowed into Japanese

AnimalFood

ushi‘cow’gyu-niku ‘beef’

(Japanese)(from Chinese)

But also:

gohan ‘rice’ raisu ‘rice’

(in a bowl, w/(on a plate, w/ a spoon)

chopsticks)


Nativization

Nativization

(from foreign languages; sounds often made to fit English sound rules)

Japanese: karaoke

original Japanese: [ka‰aok´]

either: [k˙´®ioki]

[k˙\®oki]


Nativization1

Nativization

(from foreign languages; sounds often made to fit English sound rules)

Japanese: karate

[ka‰at´]

(note lack of aspiration)

American English: [k˙\®a‰i]


Japanese phonotactics cvcv n

Japanese phonotactics: CVCV (+n)

Waado purosesaa > waa puro

Jiinzu pantsu > jii pan

Purofesho-naru resuringu > _______

Sekusharu harasumento > ________

___________________ > Rimo kon


Morphological reshaping

Morphological reshaping

Dropping English inflections

  • Kondensu miruku

  • Sumo-ku sa-mon

  • San garasu

  • Pajama

  • Furai pan

  • Superu


Morphological reshaping1

Morphological reshaping

Adding Japanese endings

  • Panic: paniku-ru

  • Sabotage: sabo-ru

  • Demonstration:demo-ru

  • Escalate: esukare-to <suru>

  • Fry: furai <suru>

  • Come-backkamubakku <suru>

  • Now: nau-i

  • Chic: shikku-na


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