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# Fundamentals of measurement PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Fundamentals of measurement. Due Today: 1. Fundamentals Pre-Lab 2. Fundamentals Short Report Homework: 1 . Density Part-1 Pre Lab. Objective. Refine measurement skills using instruments Apply rules of significant figures to combine measurements for calculations. Key Terms. Side A

Fundamentals of measurement

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### Fundamentals of measurement

Due Today:

1. Fundamentals Pre-Lab

2.Fundamentals Short Report

Homework:

1. Density Part-1 Pre Lab

### Objective

• Refine measurement skills using instruments

• Apply rules of significant figures to combine measurements for calculations

### Key Terms

• Side A

• Measure to the nearest 0.1 m

• Side B

• Measures to the nearest 0.1 dm

• Side C

• Measures to the nearest 0.1 cm

• Side D

• Measures to the nearest 0.1 mm

### Procedure Notes

• Four Stations

1. Linear Measurements and Volume:

• Cube

• Rectangular Cuboid

• Cylinder

• Use calipers to measure the diameter

• Units:

• Volumes will be reported in cm3 or mm3

### Procedure Notes

2. Density of Solids:

• Cube

• Rectangular Cuboid

• Units:

• Volumes will be reported in mm3 or cm3

• Densities will be reported in g/mm3 or g/cm3

### Procedure Notes

3. Linear Measurement and Area:

• Triangle

• Rectangle

• Parallelogram

• Units:

• Areas will be reported in mm2 or cm2

### Procedure Notes

4. Density of Liquids:

• Volume with Buret

• Volumes reported to the nearest 100th mL (25.35 mL)

• Volumes reported to the nearest 10th mL (12.5 mL)

• Units:

• Densities will be reported in g/mL

### Waste

• Blue and Yellow liquid  Down the drain

• Green liquid  Waste container in waste hood

### Risk Assessment

• Green Solution:

• Isopropyl Alcohol

• Danger

• Flammable Liquid

• Mild Skin Irritation

• Harmful if Swallowed

### Equipment Notes

• Using Calipers

• Make sure the calipers read zero when closed

• Use the outside jaws to measure the outer diameter or width

• Use the inside jaws to measure the inner diameter

### Equipment Notes

• Read & record the millimeter mark just to the left of the zero on the fixed caliper

17.0 mm

### Equipment notes

• Read & record the millimeter mark that lines up with the vernier scale (moveable) and the fixed scale.

0.48 mm

### Equipment notes

17 mm + 0.48 mm = 17.48 mm

### Significant Figures

• ALL non-zero numbers are ALWAYS significant

• (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9)

• ALL zeros BETWEEN non-zero numbers are ALWAYSsignificant

• 1005

• 10.05

### Significant Figures

• ALL zeros to the right of the decimal point AND at the end of the number are ALWAYS significant

• 501.040 – zero is significant

• 1200 – zeros are NOT significant

• 0.0052 – zeros are NOT significant

### Significant figures

• ALL zeros to the left of a decimal point AND in a number are ALWAYS significant

• 1500.0 – zeros ARE significant

• 1700.3 – zeros ARE significant

• 100 – zeros are not significant

### Significant figures

• Defined quantities do not limit significant figures

• Unit conversions - 100 cm/m

• Molar mass

• Density

• Values of constants do not limit significant figures

• Pi - ∏

• Avogadro's number - 6.022 x1023

### Significant figures

• The number of decimal places determines the number of significant figures

### Significant figures

• Multiplication and Division

• Count the number of significant figures. Round your answer to the lowest number of significant figures.

8 Significant Figures

5 Significant Figures

10 Significant Figures (from calculator)

### calculations

• When doing a calculation with different units, convert to the smallest unit

• Example:

Side 1 : 0.5 dm→50 mm

Side 2: 2.4 cm→24 mm

Side 3: 24.0mm

24.0 mm

0.5 dm

2.4 cm

### calculations

• Volume of cube

• V = l3

• Volume of rectangular cuboid

• V = l x w x h

• Volume of cylinder

• V = l x ∏ x r2

• Area of a Triangle

• A = ½ b x h

### calculations

• Area of a Rectangle/Parallelogram

• A = l x w

• The width of a parallelogram is NOT the other side

w

### Summary of calculations

• Atriangle= ½ b x h

• Arectangle= l x w

• D=

• Vcube = l3

• Vrectangle = l x w x h

• Vcylinder = l x ∏ x r2