Fundamentals of measurement
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Fundamentals of measurement. Due Today: 1. Fundamentals Pre-Lab 2. Fundamentals Short Report Homework: 1 . Density Part-1 Pre Lab. Objective. Refine measurement skills using instruments Apply rules of significant figures to combine measurements for calculations. Key Terms. Side A

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Fundamentals of measurement

Fundamentals of measurement

Due Today:

1. Fundamentals Pre-Lab

2.Fundamentals Short Report

Homework:

1. Density Part-1 Pre Lab


Objective

Objective

  • Refine measurement skills using instruments

  • Apply rules of significant figures to combine measurements for calculations


Key terms

Key Terms

  • Side A

    • Measure to the nearest 0.1 m

  • Side B

    • Measures to the nearest 0.1 dm

  • Side C

    • Measures to the nearest 0.1 cm

  • Side D

    • Measures to the nearest 0.1 mm


Procedure notes

Procedure Notes

  • Four Stations

    1. Linear Measurements and Volume:

    • Cube

    • Rectangular Cuboid

    • Cylinder

      • Use calipers to measure the diameter

    • Units:

      • Volumes will be reported in cm3 or mm3


Procedure notes1

Procedure Notes

2. Density of Solids:

  • Cube

  • Rectangular Cuboid

  • Units:

    • Volumes will be reported in mm3 or cm3

    • Densities will be reported in g/mm3 or g/cm3


Procedure notes2

Procedure Notes

3. Linear Measurement and Area:

  • Triangle

  • Rectangle

  • Parallelogram

  • Units:

    • Areas will be reported in mm2 or cm2


Procedure notes3

Procedure Notes

4. Density of Liquids:

  • Volume with Buret

    • Volumes reported to the nearest 100th mL (25.35 mL)

  • Volume with Graduated Cylinder

    • Volumes reported to the nearest 10th mL (12.5 mL)

  • Units:

    • Densities will be reported in g/mL


Waste

Waste

  • Blue and Yellow liquid  Down the drain

  • Green liquid  Waste container in waste hood


Risk assessment

Risk Assessment

  • Green Solution:

    • Isopropyl Alcohol

    • Danger

      • Flammable Liquid

      • Mild Skin Irritation

      • Harmful if Swallowed


Equipment notes

Equipment Notes

  • Using Calipers

    • Make sure the calipers read zero when closed

    • Use the outside jaws to measure the outer diameter or width

    • Use the inside jaws to measure the inner diameter


Equipment notes1

Equipment Notes

  • Read & record the millimeter mark just to the left of the zero on the fixed caliper

17.0 mm


Equipment notes2

Equipment notes

  • Read & record the millimeter mark that lines up with the vernier scale (moveable) and the fixed scale.

0.48 mm


Equipment notes3

Equipment notes

  • Add the measurements together to get an accurate reading

17 mm + 0.48 mm = 17.48 mm


Significant figures

Significant Figures

  • ALL non-zero numbers are ALWAYS significant

    • (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9)

  • ALL zeros BETWEEN non-zero numbers are ALWAYSsignificant

    • 1005

    • 10.05


Significant figures1

Significant Figures

  • ALL zeros to the right of the decimal point AND at the end of the number are ALWAYS significant

    • 501.040 – zero is significant

    • 1200 – zeros are NOT significant

    • 0.0052 – zeros are NOT significant

      (leading zero)


Significant figures2

Significant figures

  • ALL zeros to the left of a decimal point AND in a number are ALWAYS significant

    • 1500.0 – zeros ARE significant

    • 1700.3 – zeros ARE significant

    • 100 – zeros are not significant


Significant figures3

Significant figures

  • Defined quantities do not limit significant figures

    • Unit conversions - 100 cm/m

    • Molar mass

    • Density

  • Values of constants do not limit significant figures

    • Pi - ∏

    • Avogadro's number - 6.022 x1023


Significant figures4

Significant figures

  • Addition and Subtraction

    • The number of decimal places determines the number of significant figures


Significant figures5

Significant figures

  • Multiplication and Division

    • Count the number of significant figures. Round your answer to the lowest number of significant figures.

8 Significant Figures

5 Significant Figures

10 Significant Figures (from calculator)


Calculations

calculations

  • When doing a calculation with different units, convert to the smallest unit

    • Example:

      Side 1 : 0.5 dm→50 mm

      Side 2: 2.4 cm→24 mm

      Side 3: 24.0mm

24.0 mm

0.5 dm

2.4 cm


Calculations1

calculations

  • Volume of cube

    • V = l3

  • Volume of rectangular cuboid

    • V = l x w x h

  • Volume of cylinder

    • V = l x ∏ x r2

  • Area of a Triangle

    • A = ½ b x h


Calculations2

calculations

  • Area of a Rectangle/Parallelogram

    • A = l x w

    • The width of a parallelogram is NOT the other side

w


Summary of calculations

Summary of calculations

  • Atriangle= ½ b x h

  • Arectangle= l x w

  • D=

  • Vcube = l3

  • Vrectangle = l x w x h

  • Vcylinder = l x ∏ x r2


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