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Fundamentals of measurement. Due Today: 1. Fundamentals Pre-Lab 2. Fundamentals Short Report Homework: 1 . Density Part-1 Pre Lab. Objective. Refine measurement skills using instruments Apply rules of significant figures to combine measurements for calculations. Key Terms. Side A

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fundamentals of measurement
Fundamentals of measurement

Due Today:

1. Fundamentals Pre-Lab

2.Fundamentals Short Report

Homework:

1. Density Part-1 Pre Lab

objective
Objective
  • Refine measurement skills using instruments
  • Apply rules of significant figures to combine measurements for calculations
key terms
Key Terms
  • Side A
    • Measure to the nearest 0.1 m
  • Side B
    • Measures to the nearest 0.1 dm
  • Side C
    • Measures to the nearest 0.1 cm
  • Side D
    • Measures to the nearest 0.1 mm
procedure notes
Procedure Notes
  • Four Stations

1. Linear Measurements and Volume:

    • Cube
    • Rectangular Cuboid
    • Cylinder
      • Use calipers to measure the diameter
    • Units:
      • Volumes will be reported in cm3 or mm3
procedure notes1
Procedure Notes

2. Density of Solids:

  • Cube
  • Rectangular Cuboid
  • Units:
    • Volumes will be reported in mm3 or cm3
    • Densities will be reported in g/mm3 or g/cm3
procedure notes2
Procedure Notes

3. Linear Measurement and Area:

  • Triangle
  • Rectangle
  • Parallelogram
  • Units:
    • Areas will be reported in mm2 or cm2
procedure notes3
Procedure Notes

4. Density of Liquids:

  • Volume with Buret
    • Volumes reported to the nearest 100th mL (25.35 mL)
  • Volume with Graduated Cylinder
    • Volumes reported to the nearest 10th mL (12.5 mL)
  • Units:
    • Densities will be reported in g/mL
waste
Waste
  • Blue and Yellow liquid  Down the drain
  • Green liquid  Waste container in waste hood
risk assessment
Risk Assessment
  • Green Solution:
    • Isopropyl Alcohol
    • Danger
      • Flammable Liquid
      • Mild Skin Irritation
      • Harmful if Swallowed
equipment notes
Equipment Notes
  • Using Calipers
    • Make sure the calipers read zero when closed
    • Use the outside jaws to measure the outer diameter or width
    • Use the inside jaws to measure the inner diameter
equipment notes1
Equipment Notes
  • Read & record the millimeter mark just to the left of the zero on the fixed caliper

17.0 mm

equipment notes2
Equipment notes
  • Read & record the millimeter mark that lines up with the vernier scale (moveable) and the fixed scale.

0.48 mm

equipment notes3
Equipment notes
  • Add the measurements together to get an accurate reading

17 mm + 0.48 mm = 17.48 mm

significant figures
Significant Figures
  • ALL non-zero numbers are ALWAYS significant
    • (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9)
  • ALL zeros BETWEEN non-zero numbers are ALWAYSsignificant
    • 1005
    • 10.05
significant figures1
Significant Figures
  • ALL zeros to the right of the decimal point AND at the end of the number are ALWAYS significant
    • 501.040 – zero is significant
    • 1200 – zeros are NOT significant
    • 0.0052 – zeros are NOT significant

(leading zero)

significant figures2
Significant figures
  • ALL zeros to the left of a decimal point AND in a number are ALWAYS significant
    • 1500.0 – zeros ARE significant
    • 1700.3 – zeros ARE significant
    • 100 – zeros are not significant
significant figures3
Significant figures
  • Defined quantities do not limit significant figures
    • Unit conversions - 100 cm/m
    • Molar mass
    • Density
  • Values of constants do not limit significant figures
    • Pi - ∏
    • Avogadro\'s number - 6.022 x1023
significant figures4
Significant figures
  • Addition and Subtraction
    • The number of decimal places determines the number of significant figures
significant figures5
Significant figures
  • Multiplication and Division
    • Count the number of significant figures. Round your answer to the lowest number of significant figures.

8 Significant Figures

5 Significant Figures

10 Significant Figures (from calculator)

calculations
calculations
  • When doing a calculation with different units, convert to the smallest unit
    • Example:

Side 1 : 0.5 dm→50 mm

Side 2: 2.4 cm→24 mm

Side 3: 24.0mm

24.0 mm

0.5 dm

2.4 cm

calculations1
calculations
  • Volume of cube
    • V = l3
  • Volume of rectangular cuboid
    • V = l x w x h
  • Volume of cylinder
    • V = l x ∏ x r2
  • Area of a Triangle
    • A = ½ b x h
calculations2
calculations
  • Area of a Rectangle/Parallelogram
    • A = l x w
    • The width of a parallelogram is NOT the other side

w

summary of calculations
Summary of calculations
  • Atriangle= ½ b x h
  • Arectangle= l x w
  • D=
  • Vcube = l3
  • Vrectangle = l x w x h
  • Vcylinder = l x ∏ x r2
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