Fundamentals of measurement

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# Fundamentals of measurement - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Fundamentals of measurement. Due Today: 1. Fundamentals Pre-Lab 2. Fundamentals Short Report Homework: 1 . Density Part-1 Pre Lab. Objective. Refine measurement skills using instruments Apply rules of significant figures to combine measurements for calculations. Key Terms. Side A

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Fundamentals of measurement

Due Today:

1. Fundamentals Pre-Lab

2.Fundamentals Short Report

Homework:

1. Density Part-1 Pre Lab

Objective
• Refine measurement skills using instruments
• Apply rules of significant figures to combine measurements for calculations
Key Terms
• Side A
• Measure to the nearest 0.1 m
• Side B
• Measures to the nearest 0.1 dm
• Side C
• Measures to the nearest 0.1 cm
• Side D
• Measures to the nearest 0.1 mm
Procedure Notes
• Four Stations

1. Linear Measurements and Volume:

• Cube
• Rectangular Cuboid
• Cylinder
• Use calipers to measure the diameter
• Units:
• Volumes will be reported in cm3 or mm3
Procedure Notes

2. Density of Solids:

• Cube
• Rectangular Cuboid
• Units:
• Volumes will be reported in mm3 or cm3
• Densities will be reported in g/mm3 or g/cm3
Procedure Notes

3. Linear Measurement and Area:

• Triangle
• Rectangle
• Parallelogram
• Units:
• Areas will be reported in mm2 or cm2
Procedure Notes

4. Density of Liquids:

• Volume with Buret
• Volumes reported to the nearest 100th mL (25.35 mL)
• Volumes reported to the nearest 10th mL (12.5 mL)
• Units:
• Densities will be reported in g/mL
Waste
• Blue and Yellow liquid  Down the drain
• Green liquid  Waste container in waste hood
Risk Assessment
• Green Solution:
• Isopropyl Alcohol
• Danger
• Flammable Liquid
• Mild Skin Irritation
• Harmful if Swallowed
Equipment Notes
• Using Calipers
• Make sure the calipers read zero when closed
• Use the outside jaws to measure the outer diameter or width
• Use the inside jaws to measure the inner diameter
Equipment Notes
• Read & record the millimeter mark just to the left of the zero on the fixed caliper

17.0 mm

Equipment notes
• Read & record the millimeter mark that lines up with the vernier scale (moveable) and the fixed scale.

0.48 mm

Equipment notes

17 mm + 0.48 mm = 17.48 mm

Significant Figures
• ALL non-zero numbers are ALWAYS significant
• (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9)
• ALL zeros BETWEEN non-zero numbers are ALWAYSsignificant
• 1005
• 10.05
Significant Figures
• ALL zeros to the right of the decimal point AND at the end of the number are ALWAYS significant
• 501.040 – zero is significant
• 1200 – zeros are NOT significant
• 0.0052 – zeros are NOT significant

Significant figures
• ALL zeros to the left of a decimal point AND in a number are ALWAYS significant
• 1500.0 – zeros ARE significant
• 1700.3 – zeros ARE significant
• 100 – zeros are not significant
Significant figures
• Defined quantities do not limit significant figures
• Unit conversions - 100 cm/m
• Molar mass
• Density
• Values of constants do not limit significant figures
• Pi - ∏
• Avogadro\'s number - 6.022 x1023
Significant figures
• The number of decimal places determines the number of significant figures
Significant figures
• Multiplication and Division
• Count the number of significant figures. Round your answer to the lowest number of significant figures.

8 Significant Figures

5 Significant Figures

10 Significant Figures (from calculator)

calculations
• When doing a calculation with different units, convert to the smallest unit
• Example:

Side 1 : 0.5 dm→50 mm

Side 2: 2.4 cm→24 mm

Side 3: 24.0mm

24.0 mm

0.5 dm

2.4 cm

calculations
• Volume of cube
• V = l3
• Volume of rectangular cuboid
• V = l x w x h
• Volume of cylinder
• V = l x ∏ x r2
• Area of a Triangle
• A = ½ b x h
calculations
• Area of a Rectangle/Parallelogram
• A = l x w
• The width of a parallelogram is NOT the other side

w

Summary of calculations
• Atriangle= ½ b x h
• Arectangle= l x w
• D=
• Vcube = l3
• Vrectangle = l x w x h
• Vcylinder = l x ∏ x r2