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LOW CARBON OPPORTUNITIES IN THE NIGERIAN ENERGY SECTOR. By Prof. A. S. Sambo Director General/CEO Energy Commission of Nigeria, Abuja. Nigeria. email: [email protected], [email protected] *A Presentation made at the Low Carbon Energy for Development Network (LCEDN) conference,

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Low carbon opportunities in the nigerian energy sector

LOW CARBON OPPORTUNITIES IN THE NIGERIAN ENERGY SECTOR

By

Prof. A. S. Sambo

Director General/CEO

Energy Commission of Nigeria,

Abuja. Nigeria.

email: [email protected], [email protected]

*A Presentation made at the Low Carbon Energy for Development Network (LCEDN) conference,

Loughborough, United Kingdom, 4th and 5th April 2012.


Contents
CONTENTS

1. Introduction

2. Energy Resources in Nigeria

3. Energy Supply and Demand

4. Low Carbon Opportunities

5. Challenges

6. Conclusion

2


1 introduction country profile
1. Introduction: Country Profile

  • Nigeria is one of the 54 African countries situated in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria lies in the tropics within latitudes 4.32N and 14N and longitudes 2.72E and 14.64E, with land area of about 924,000 sq km, which is about 3.1% of African land area.

  • The population in 2006 was 140 million, which was about 15% of the continent’s population.

  • Nigeria is a federal republic, made up of 36 States and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), which serves as the seat of the Federal Government.

  • Government is operated through the presidential system, similar to that in North America.


1 introduction cont d
1. Introduction … Cont’d

JAPAN

USA

CANADA

UK

CHINA

MALAYSIA/S. AFRICA

NIGERIA(3rd from left)

RUSSIA

Graphical representation of the relationship between Energy and the Economy (2005) – IEA(2007)


1 introduction cont d1
1. Introduction … Cont’d

  • Energy supply into the Nigerian economy is abysmally low for its population and aspiration to be amongst the 20 large economies in the world by 2020.

  • Huge amount of useful energy in the form of electricity, beyond the current value of about 20TWh/year from an available capacity of about 4000MW, must be injected to get this national aspiration on tract.

  • However, this must be done in a responsible and sustainable manner.


1 introduction cont d2
1. Introduction … Cont’d

  • One of the risk factors to sustainable development is the adverse effects of climate change reported to be induced by the upset of natural balance of green house gases (GHG) in the atmosphere, particularly carbon dioxide (C02), over periods of about 30 years.


1 introduction cont d3
1. Introduction ….. Cont’d

  • However, the excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere responsible for climate change is also reported to be largely contributed by the consumption of fossil fuels mainly in transportation, power generation and process heat activities.

8


1 introduction cont d4
1. Introduction … Cont’d

  • This presentation briefly looks at the low carbon opportunities in the Nigerian energy sector, in its quest to meet the energy demand needed to grow prosperity in the nation.


2 energy resources
2. Energy Resources

a) Fossil Energy Resources

.

Source: CBN (2009)


2 energy resources contd
2. Energy Resources…….contd

b) Renewables and Nuclear

.

Source: REMP (2005)

* FM EMV


3. Energy Supply and Demand

a) Energy Supply

Source: CBN (2006, 2008)

*Africa Average-IEA (2007)

**World Average-IEA (2007)


3 energy supply demand cont d
3. Energy Supply & Demand .... Cont’d

b) Projected Electricity Demand for Nigeria (MW)

(Based on MAED from IAEA)

.

Source: Energy Commission of Nigeria (2009)


3 energy supply demand cont d1
3. Energy Supply & Demand .... Cont’d

c) Projected Petroleum Products Demand (Million Litres)

Source: Energy Commission of Nigeria (2009)

14


4 low carbon opportunities cont d
4. LOW CARBON OPPORTUNITIES...Cont’d

Summary of Renewable Energy Targets

Electricity Projection in MW @13% GDP Growth Rate.

15


4 low carbon opportunities
4. LOW CARBON OPPORTUNITIES

a) Hydropower

Nigeria with a hydropower potential of about 15,000MW has about 2000MW only exploited. A large unexploited potential therefore exists that needs to be developed fully. This is an option that needs to be pursued with all urgency and vigour


Penstock bifurcation into the 150 kW power house at Waya Dam, Bauchi State

4. LOW CARBON OPPORTUNITIES. ...Cont’d


4 low carbon opportunities cont d1
4. LOW CARBON OPPORTUNITIES ...Cont’d Dam, Bauchi State

b) Solar Energy:

Solar energy has the greatest potential to contribute enormous amount of low carbon energy in Nigeria through solar PV and solar thermal process. About 15MW of solar PV systems, are dispersedly installed in the country, for street lights, water pumping for drinking and sanitation, lighting and communication etc.


4 low carbon opportunities cont d2
4. LOW CARBON OPPORTUNITIES Dam, Bauchi State ...Cont’d

Solar PV System


4 low carbon opportunities cont d3

Solar Water Heater developed by NCERD Dam, Bauchi State

Pilot Water Heater at UDUTH by SERC, Sokoto

4. LOW CARBON OPPORTUNITIES...Cont’d

.

Solar Water Heater


4 low carbon opportunities cont d4
4. LOW CARBON OPPORTUNITIES Dam, Bauchi State ...Cont’d

c) Wind Energy

Nigeria’s wind reforms 2-4m/s at 10m height is considered low for wind farm electricity generation using conventional wind generations. However, there may be localized areas with greater wind speeds, where reasonable electricity could be generated there from.


4 low carbon opportunities cont d5
4. LOW CARBON OPPORTUNITIES Dam, Bauchi State ...Cont’d

One of the 37 No 275kW Wind to Electricity Machines for the 10 MW Katsina Wind Farm

5kW aero generator in Sayya Gidan Gada, Sokoto State


4 low carbon opportunities cont d6

Biogas Digester Pilot Plant at NCERD, UNN, Nsukka Dam, Bauchi State

Dome Type Biogas Pilot Plant at Danjawa Village, Wamakko LG, Sokoto State

4. LOW CARBON OPPORTUNITIES...Cont’d

  • Biomass/biogas/biofuel

    - Power generation from rice husk

    - Biogas generation for heating & power generation

    - Municipal waste-to-power

    - Biofuels (ethanol &biodiesel) from Sugarcane, Jatropha &

    Lignocellulolistic feedstocks – use of E10 & B20 approved

    - Fuelwood lots development


4 low carbon opportunities cont d7
4. LOW CARBON OPPORTUNITIES Dam, Bauchi State ...Cont’d

e) Nuclear Energy:

A 1000MWe PWR nuclear power plant is being planned to come on stream by 2020. A Nigerian atomic Energy commission and Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority are in place for the programme.


4 low carbon opportunities contd
4. Low Carbon Opportunities…Contd Dam, Bauchi State

  • f) Natural gas: Natural gas, a fossil hydrocarbon gas, is mainly composed of methane gas – a gas with the least carbon atom per molecule. Over 70% of the grid connected power generation capacity in Nigeria are natural gas driven. There is room for more gas utilization in power generation and process heat generation using efficient power cycles.


4 low carbon opportunities cont d8
4. LOW CARBON OPPORTUNITIES Dam, Bauchi State ...Cont’d

g) Energy Demand Management Option: Energy Efficiency & Conservation

▪ Use of energy audit to identify and rectify areas of energy wastage

▪ Labeling of appliances according to efficiency levels

▪ Use of efficient energy appliances like CFLs, LEDs, improved woodstove, efficient refrigerators and air-conditioners, electric motors etc.

▪ Use of combine cycle power plants to improve overall power efficiency (integrated solar combine cycle (ISCC) & (IGCC)


4 low carbon opportunities cont d serc 15 efficient wood stove
4. LOW CARBON OPPORTUNITIES Dam, Bauchi State ...Cont’dSERC 15% Efficient Wood Stove


4. LOW CARBON OPPORTUNITIES...Cont’d Dam, Bauchi State Developmental Association for Renewable Energies (DARE) 80 % Efficient Wood Stove


4. LOW CARBON OPPORTUNITIES...Cont’d Dam, Bauchi State

ENERGY COMMISSION OF NIGERIA’S PILOT PROJECTS ON RENEWABLE ENERGY (2005 – 2011)


5 challenges
5. CHALLENGES Dam, Bauchi State

Relating higher initial investment

Inadequate legal instrument for low carbon energy development

Inadequate human and manufacturing capacity for low carbon energy systems’ development

Inadequate Incentives for the low carbon energy sub-sector (FIT, fiscal & financial)

Inconsistency in Government policies

30


6 conclusion
6. CONCLUSION Dam, Bauchi State

Nigeria requires huge amount of energy to get its economy in the path of prosperity. The energy supply must, however, be done in a manner that allows for sustainable development.

Low carbon energy systems from solar, wind, hydro, biomass, nuclear and natural gas as well as the use of efficient power cycles and energy systems would allow for sustainable development in the long term.

However, appropriate legal instruments are required.

31


THANK YOU Dam, Bauchi State

32


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