Thinking and Reasoning. The Elements of Cognition. Think about what thinking does for you… Concept - a mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having common properties.
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Concept - a mental category that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having common properties.
Basicconcepts have a moderate number of instances thus making them easier to grasp than those with numerous instances.
Small ones contains less detail than larger ones.
They occur in a mental “space” of a fixed size.
“up and back between contradictory lines of reasoning, using each to critically cross-examine the other.”Richard Paul (1984) Philosopher.
You must use no more than 4 lines to connect all the dots without removing your pencil from the paper.
Copy the diagram on a piece of paper.
Stages of Intellectual Development
Discussion Piaget's theory identifies four developmental stages and the processes by which children progress through them. The four stages are:
1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old)--The child, through physical interaction with his or her environment, builds a set of concepts about reality and how it works. This is the stage where a child does not know that physical objects remain in existence even when out of sight (object permanence).Stages of Development
2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7)--The child is not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations.
3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11)--As physical experience accumulates, the child starts to conceptualize, creating logical structures that explain his or her physical experiences. Abstract problem solving is also possible at this stage. For example, arithmetic equations can be solved with numbers, not just with objects.Stages of Development
“Although most people have the capacity to think logically, reason dialectically, and make judgments reflectively, it is abundantly clear that they don’t always do so”
Make judgments reflectively?
Make a choice: There is a disease that is likely to kill 600 people. Would you prefer a program that will definitely save 200 people or one that has a 1/3 probability of saving all 600 and a 2/3 chance of saving none?
Make a choice: You have available a program in which 400 people will definitely die and a program in which there is a 1/3 probability of nobody dying and a 2/3’s probability that all 600 will die. Which to you choose?
The Availability Heuristic - the tendency to judge the probability of an event by how easy it is to think of examples or instances.
This explains why so many people buy lottery tickets or buy insurance before a flight.
If a card has a vowel on one side, then it has an even number on the other side. Which two cards do you need to turn over to find out?