Constructing a short story
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Constructing a Short Story. The do’s and Don'ts of creative writing. Year Nine English Miss Cobby Justin Tronerud. Today . Review yesterday We will begin to explore what makes a short story Audience Free writing exercise Share some of our ideas Register and voice

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Constructing a short story

Constructing a Short Story

The do’s and Don'ts of creative writing

Year Nine English

Miss Cobby

Justin Tronerud


Today

Today

  • Review yesterday

  • We will begin to explore what makes a short story

  • Audience

  • Free writing exercise

  • Share some of our ideas

  • Register and voice

  • Planning your story – mind map and story boarding

  • Discussion – free writing versus planning


Yesterday

Yesterday

  • Genre – a way to categories different types or writing

  • Ghost stories :

  • fiction that includes a ghost or the possibility of ghosts

  • uses our fear of the unknown to create suspense

  • merges the living with the dead

  • draw on out experiences of what happens to those left behind after a death

  • commonly deal with a violent or early death of the ghost or spirit

  • place, time , objects or scents may take on symbolic experience

  • LEAVE THE READER GUESSING!


Yesterday1

Yesterday

  • Crime and Detection:

  • fictionalises crime, detection, criminals and their motives

  • usually leaves a trail of clues

  • will often try to mislead the reader by leaving false clues – Red Herrings

  • will often deal with the idea of crime bringing chaos and disorder to an otherwise ordered world

  • threatens the comfort and calm world of the middle class

  • offer reassurance that the crime will always be solved in the end


Yesterday2

Yesterday

  • Love Stories:

  • usually deal with love

  • love of a parent and child, platonic love, or the intense feeling between lovers.

  • central love story – usually centres around two people trying to make their love work

  • emotionally satisfying love story – risk or struggle rewarded with emotionally satisfying ending


What will our writing need to include

What will our writing need to include

  • The audience – Thinking about writing

  • Register and voice

  • Narrative perspective

  • Plot

  • Image and symbol

  • Editing and revising


Who is your audience

Who is your Audience?

  • When we write we must consider:

  • Why do we write?

  • Who is our audience?

  • What is its purpose?

  • What are we trying to achieve? (feelings/emotional response)

  • Free writing exercise – WRITE, write anything that springs into you head. Get it on paper, quickly and unedited!

  • N.B. This could be the beginning of you short story but it doesn’t have to be!


Register and voice

Register and Voice

  • Real Speech Sentences

  • are sometimes left unfinished

  • jump from one thought to another

  • are sometimes ungrammatical

  • need physical gestures to make the meaning clear

  • are sometimes rambling

  • are sometimes repetitious


Register and voice1

Register and Voice

  • Dialogue in Fiction

  • a story can have no dialogue at all or can be virtually all dialogue

  • dialogue should be consistent with the characters and personalities of the speakers

  • dialogue should advance the action, and should not be used as padding

  • you can set out dialogue conventionally, on a separate line between quotation marks, or it can blend with the rest of the text

  • dialogue should vary from speaker to speaker, varying in vocabulary, pace, rhythm , phrasing and sentence length


Register and voice2

Register and Voice

  • A Few Do Not’s With Dialogue

  • try not to have too many characters talking in a scene

  • do not use dialogue to convey information about setting or plot!

  • don’t use dialogue to convey the mundane realities of everyday communication

  • DON’T use ‘he said’ or ‘she said; all of the time

  • Exercise : Read ‘The Father’ then write five pieces of dialogue that don’t use ‘he said’ or ‘she said’!

  • Start thinking about which genre you are going to use for the summative task!


Last time

Last Time

  • Why do we write?

  • to pass on knowledge and information

  • entertainment

  • convey emotions and feelings

  • Remember: Consider your audience and make your writing appropriate.


Last time1

Last Time

  • Register and Voice

  • keep you dialogue real, some sentences don’t finish properly, can use improper grammar, can be rambling and repetitious.

  • need physical gestures to make the meaning clear

  • a story can have no dialogue at all or can be virtually all dialogue

  • dialogue should be consistent with the characters and personalities of the speakers

  • you can set out dialogue conventionally, on a separate line between quotation marks, or it can blend with the rest of the text

  • dialogue should vary from speaker to speaker, varying in vocabulary, pace, rhythm , phrasing and sentence length


Last time2

Last Time

  • Register and Voice - A Few Don’ts

  • try not to have too many characters talking in a scene

  • do not use dialogue to convey information about setting or plot!

  • don’t use dialogue to convey the mundane realities of everyday communication

  • DON’T use ‘he said’ or ‘she said; all of the time


Narrative perspective

Narrative perspective

  • “Point of view”

  • When we read we hear an imagined voice telling, or transmitting, the story to us.

  • We ask questions about the voice which will help us understand the ways in which the “voice” was created.

  • Who’s telling the story?

  • In what form do they speak?

  • Who are they speaking to?

  • How much do they know?

  • Are they telling the truth?


Narrative perspective1

Narrative perspective

  • “Point of view”

  • Has been described as the relation in which the narrator stands in the story.

  • The idea of ‘point of view’ helps us to understand which vantage point the action is being viewed from.

  • Therefore which ‘narrative perspective’ is being used

  • In your books write the following headings:

  • First person

  • Second Person

  • Omniscient


Narrative perspective2

Narrative perspective

  • First Person

  • The narrator is a character

  • Uses the ‘I’ form of address

  • The oldest form or story-telling and still very popular

  • The first person can be the all-important character, and the main interest in the story (first person participant)

  • OR

  • Act as a recording pair of eyes, memory and the central interest is what he/she sees (first person observer)


Narrative perspective3

Narrative perspective

  • First Person

  • The first person perspective creates intimacy, a voice speaking directly to the reader.

  • First person narratives give the illusion of seeming closest to ‘real life’ storytelling.


Narrative perspective4

Narrative perspective

  • Second Person

  • The author creates a character to tells the story using the ‘you’ form of address.

  • Rarely used as the author obviously knows little about the reader.

  • Can give the reader a feeling of overpowering intimacy.


Narrative perspective5

Narrative perspective

  • Omniscient Narrative

  • The narrator is usually an uninvolved, uncharacterised voice.

  • Tells the story using the ‘he’ or ‘she’ form of address.

  • Third person total omniscient relates external events (action, dialogue) with God-like power. Is all-seeing and all-knowing.

  • Third person selective omniscient offers a narrator who reveals thoughts of one or two characters

  • Third person limited omniscient offers a narrator whose knowledge is limited to ordinary human powers of observation


Last time3

Last time

  • ‘Point of view’

  • Who’s telling the story?

  • In what form do they speak?

  • Who are they speaking to?

  • How much do they know?

  • Are they telling the truth?


Last time4

Last time

  • ‘Narrative Perspective’

  • First Person - The first person perspective creates

  • intimacy, a voice speaking directly to the reader.

  • Second Person - The author creates a character to tells

  • the story using the ‘you’ form of address.

  • Use caution! Second person narratives can give the reader a feeling of overpowering intimacy.

  • Omniscient Narrative - The narrator is usually an uninvolved, uncharacterised

  • voice. Tells the story using the ‘he’ or ‘she’ form of address.

  • Third person total omniscient relates external events (action, dialogue) with God-like power. Is all-seeing and all-knowing.

  • Third person selective omniscient offers a narrator who reveals thoughts of one or two characters

  • Third person limited omniscient offers a narrator whose knowledge is limited to ordinary human powers of observation


Plot telling good stories

Plot – Telling good stories

  • Plot – may be defined as the arrangement of events in a

  • Story

  • how events are arranged

  • what connects these events

  • Types of plot

  • Linear Plot

  • Non-linear Plot


Plot telling good stories1

Plot – Telling good stories

  • Linear Plot – represents a common-sense idea about time.

  • it is chronological

  • follows a sequence

  • of events


Plot telling good stories2

Plot – Telling good stories

  • Non-linear Plot – represents a common-sense idea about time.

  • Less emphasis on events being chronological

  • events are not in order, they must be connected

  • is useful for omens, prophecies, visions and dreams.

  • ‘story within a story’


Image and symbol

Image and Symbol

  • Imagery - in literature is used to paint a mental image of

  • something. The techniques used are descriptive and paint a picture

  • that allows the reader to visualize the setting, person, or image that

  • is intended to be conveyed.

  • ‘The old farm encrusted with barren soil and remnants of long

  • decayed crops stood lonely and isolated as the wind pounded its

  • walls.’

  • Try writing your own sentence using imagery


Image and symbol1

Image and Symbol

  • Symbolism - is often used by writers to enhance their writing.

  • Symbolism can give a literary work more richness and colour and can

  • make the meaning of the work deeper.

  • In literature, symbolism can take many forms including:

  • A figure of speech where an object, person, or situation has another meaning other than its literal meaning.

  • The actions of a character, word, action, or event that have a deeper meaning in the context of the whole story.


Image and symbol2

Image and Symbol

  • Symbolismis found in colours:

  • Blackis used to represent death or evil.

  • White stands for life and purity.

  • Redcan symbolize blood, passion, danger, or immoral character.

  • Purple is a royal colour.

  • Yellow stands for violence or decay.

  • Bluerepresents peacefulness and calm.


Image and symbol3

Image and Symbol

  • Metaphors As Symbolism

  • A metaphor is a figure of speech that uses symbolism.

  • It compares two things that are not similar and shows that they actually do have something in common.

  • In a metaphor, there is an additional meaning to a word. This makes it an example of symbolism.

  • He is a rock: This is symbolic because it signifies that he is strong and dependable.

  • Love is a jewel: This is symbolic because it suggests that love is rare and pressure.


Editing and revision

Editing and Revision


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