Late 19 th century u s foreign policy imperialism
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LATE 19 TH CENTURY U.S. FOREIGN POLICY & IMPERIALISM. Unit VD AP United States History. Fundamental Question. To what extent was the American public supportive of increased foreign involvement?. U.S. Foreign Policy (1789-1850). Washington’s Farewell Address

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LATE 19 TH CENTURY U.S. FOREIGN POLICY & IMPERIALISM

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Late 19 th century u s foreign policy imperialism

LATE 19TH CENTURY U.S. FOREIGN POLICY & IMPERIALISM

Unit VD

AP United States History


Fundamental question

Fundamental Question

  • To what extent was the American public supportive of increased foreign involvement?


U s foreign policy 1789 1850

U.S. Foreign Policy (1789-1850)

  • Washington’s Farewell Address

    • Avoid permanent alliances, but defend American interests

  • Jefferson’s Empire of Liberty

    • Model of republicanism and democracy

    • Louisiana Purchase (1803)

  • Monroe Doctrine

    • Prevention of European intervention in Western Hemisphere

  • Manifest Destiny

    • Adams-Onis Treaty

    • Webster-Ashburton Treaty

    • Oregon Territory

    • Texas

    • Mexican-American War – Mexican Cession

  • Limited Involvement

    • Domestic economic expansion

      • Protective tariffs

    • Economic dependency on European powers

  • Immigration

    • Mass wave during 1830s-1840s


U s foreign policy during sectionalism 1850 1860

U.S. Foreign Policy During Sectionalism (1850-1860)

  • Zachary Taylor (W)

    • Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850)

      • Neutrality of possible Nicaragua canal

  • Millard Fillmore (W)

    • Pursued Asian markets

  • Franklin Pierce (D)

    • Gadsden Purchase (1853)

    • Perry Expedition (1853-1854)

      • Encourage trade and diplomatic relations with Japan

      • Convention of Kanagawa (1854)

  • James Buchanan (D)

    • Limited foreign affairs due to onset of Civil War


William seward

William Seward

  • Secretary of State (1861-1869)

    • Under Lincoln and Johnson

  • Trent Affair (1861)

  • France and Mexico

  • Alaska Purchase (1867)

    • $7.2 million (2 cents per acre) to Russia for 586,412 sq. mi.

    • “Seward’s Folly” or “Seward’s Icebox”

      • Eventual discovery of gold and oil reserves

  • Burlingame Treaty (1868)

    • Most favored nation status with China


James g blaine

James G. Blaine

  • Secretary of State (1881, 1889-1892)

    • Under Garfield and Harrison

  • Expansionist

  • Latin America

    • Pan-American Conference (1889)

    • Assert American influence and free trade

    • Limit or prevent European intervention


Hawaii

Hawaii

  • White Intrusion

    • Sugar Plantation Owners

  • Queen Liliuokalani

    • Attempted to reassert native authority and drive out foreigners

  • Overthrow of Hawaii (1893)

    • Sanford Dole

    • Republic of Hawaii (1894-1898)

  • Annexation by U.S. (1898)

    • Strategic commercial and military location


Why hawaii

Why Hawaii?


Spanish american war 1898

Spanish-American War (1898)

  • Origins and Causes

    • Cuba

      • Jose Marti

      • Reconcentrado

    • DeLome Letter

      • Spanish diplomat ridicules McKinley

    • U.S.S. Maine(Feb. 15)

      • 266 deaths

      • “Remember the Maine! To hell with Spain!”

  • Yellow Journalism

    • Joseph Pulitzer

    • William Randolph Hearst

  • Declaration of War (Apr. 21)

    • Teller Amendment

      • U.S. promise Cuban independence, not annexation


Spanish american war 1898 caribbean theater

Spanish-American War (1898)Caribbean Theater

  • Cuba

    • Battle of San Juan Hill

      • Significant American victory

    • Battle of Santiago de Cuba

      • Destruction of Spanish fleet

  • Puerto Rico

  • Rough Riders

    • Volunteers led by Theodore Roosevelt

    • Earned fame from Battle of San Juan Hill

  • Yellow Fever

    • 75% of American forces affected

    • Walter Reed proves mosquito transmission


Spanish american war 1898 pacific theater

Spanish-American War (1898)Pacific Theater

  • Philippines

    • Battle of Manila Bay

      • Destruction of Spanish fleet

    • Emilio Aguinaldo

      • Led rebellion forces against Spanish rule

      • Declared independence


Spanish american war 18981

Spanish-American War (1898)

  • “A splendid little war.”

  • Treaty of Paris

    • American Acquisitions

      • Puerto Rico

      • Guam

      • Philippines

  • Cuba

    • American military occupation (1898-1902)

    • Platt Amendment (1901)

      • Treaties required American approval

      • Guantanamo Bay


Imperialists and anti imperialists

Proponents

Most from GOP

Theodore Roosevelt (R)

John Hay (R)

James G. Blaine (R)

Reasons

Economic expansion

Political security

International prestige

Humanitarian efforts

Capt. Alfred Thayer Mahan

The Influence of Sea Power upon History (1890)

Social Darwinism

Jingoism

“White Man’s Burden”

Insular Cases (1901-1903)

Supreme Court ruled constitutional guarantees granted only by Congress to U.S. territories

“Constitution does not necessarily follow the flag”

Opponents

Mostly from Democratic Party

Anti-Imperialist League

Grover Cleveland (D)

William Jennings Bryan (D)

Senator Ben Tillman (D-SC)

Samuel Gompers (AFL)

Mark Twain

Andrew Carnegie

Jane Addams

Reasons

Undemocratic

Violated republicanism

“consent of the governed”

Prevent influx of “inferior races”

Imperialists and Anti-Imperialists


The philippines

The Philippines

  • Philippine-American War (1899-1902)

  • Atrocities

    • Torture by both sides

    • Concentration camps

  • Casualties

    • 12,000-20,000 Filipinos

    • 4,165 Americans

    • 200,000-1,000,000 Filipino civilians

  • Americanization

    • Freedom of religion

    • English as official language


China

China

  • Open Door Policy

    • Secretary of State John Hay

    • Spheres of influence

    • Mutual economic policies among foreign powers

  • Boxer Rebellion (1899-1901)

    • Eight-Nation Alliance against Chinese nationalists

    • Severely weakened Qing Dynasty


Theodore roosevelt 1901 1909 big stick policy

Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909)Big Stick Policy

  • The Americas

    • Roosevelt Corollary

      • Unstable economies in Venezuela and Dominican Republican enticed direct European influence

      • U.S. right to intervene if:

        • Incapable of protecting American interests

        • Stabilize economies to prevent European influence

    • Panama Canal

      • Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901)

      • Panamanian Revolution (1903)

      • Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty (1903)

      • Panama Canal opened 1914

  • Asian Policy

    • Treaty of Portsmouth (1904)

    • “Gentleman’s Agreement” (1907)

    • Great White Fleet (1907-1909)

      • Demonstrate U.S. naval power and prestige


William howard taft 1909 1913 dollar diplomacy

William Howard Taft (1909-1913)Dollar Diplomacy

  • Encourage economic development infrastructure in Latin America and abroad

    • Administration of loans and financing

    • Railroad investments in China

  • Lodge Corollary (1912)

    • Henry Cabot Lodge

    • Forbade ANY foreign acquisition in Western Hemisphere


Woodrow wilson 1913 1921 moral diplomacy

Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921)Moral Diplomacy

  • Pursuit of non-expansionist policies and promote democratic governments

    • Despite military intervention in Haiti, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, and Mexico

  • Mexico Revolution

    • Tampico Affair (1914)

    • Pancho Villa Expedition (1916-1917)

      • General John J. Pershing

  • Jones Acts

    • Democratic policies for Philippines (1916)

    • U.S. citizenship to Puerto Rico (1917)

  • World War I

    • Fourteen Points


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