Greek and roman mythology
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Greek and Roman Mythology. A Review of The Principal Gods and Goddesses. What is a myth?. A traditional story rooted in primitive folk beliefs of cultures Uses the supernatural to interpret natural events Explains the culture’s view of the universe and the nature of humanity.

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Greek and Roman Mythology

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Greek and Roman Mythology

A Review

of

The Principal Gods and Goddesses


What is a myth?

  • A traditional story rooted in primitive folk beliefs of cultures

  • Uses the supernatural to interpret natural events

  • Explains the culture’s view of the universe and the nature of humanity


In the beginning...

  • …was Chaos (shapeless nothingness)

  • Chaos had two children:

    • Night (darkness)

    • Erebus (death)

  • “All was black, empty, silent, endless.”

  • Mysteriously, Love was born of darkness and death.


And then...

  • When Love was born, order and beauty began to flourish.

  • Love created Light and Day.

  • Earth was created.

    • She was the solid ground, but also a personality.

  • The Earth bore Heaven to cover her and be a home for the gods.


The First Parents

  • Mother Earth = Gaea (Gaia)

  • Father Heaven = Ouranos (Uranus)

  • They had three kinds of children:

    • Three monsters with 100 hands and 50 heads

    • Three cyclopes

    • The titans

  • These were the first characters that had the appearance of life, although it was unlike any life known to man.


Gaea and Uranus


The Titans (The Elder Gods)

  • There were many of them.

  • Enormous size, incredible strength

  • Cronos (Saturn): Ruler of the titans

  • Rhea: Wife of Cronos

  • Ocean: River that encircled the world

  • Iapetus: Father of Prometheus,Epimetheus, and Atlas (also titans)


Cronos and Rhea were parents of

Zeus (Jupiter, Jove)

Poseidon (Neptune)

Hades (Pluto)

Hera (Juno)

Hestia (Vesta)

Demeter (Ceres)

Other Olympians include

Athena (Minerva)

Ares (Mars)

Hebe (Juventas)

Hephaestus (Vulcan)

Apollo (Apollo)

Artemis (Diana)

Hermes (Mercury)

Aphrodite (Venus)

Dionysus (Bacchus)

Persephone

The Principal Gods


Clash of the Titans


And the winner is…

Protagonist

Antagonist


The Olympians


Zeus

  • Roman Name: Jupiter (also Jove)

  • Supreme god of the Olympians.

  • Fathered many characters in mythology


Zeus


Hera

  • Roman Name: Juno

  • Zeus’s sister and wife

  • Jealous protector of marriage

  • Punished the women Zeus fell in love with


Poseidon

  • Roman Name: Neptune

  • God of the Seas and Waters

  • “The Earthshaker”


Hades

  • Roman Name: Pluto

  • God of the Underworld/ Dead

  • Kidnapped Persephone


Hestia

  • Roman Name: Vesta

  • Goddess of Home

  • Powerful Protector


Demeter

  • Roman Name: Ceres

  • Goddess of the Harvest

  • A Goddess of the Earth


Athena

  • Roman Name: Minerva

  • Goddess of Wisdom and War

  • Sprang from Zeus’s head


Ares

  • Roman Name: Mars

  • God of War

  • Son of Zeus and Hera

  • Bloodthirsty and merciless


Hephaestus

  • Roman Name: Vulcan (Mulciber)

  • God of Fire/Forge

  • Son of Zeus and Hera

  • Kind, unlike his brother


Apollo

  • Roman Name: Apollo

  • God of Light/Sun and Music

  • Brother of Artemis


Artemis

  • Roman Name: Diana

  • Goddess of the Moon/ Hunt

  • Sister to Apollo


Hermes

  • Roman Name: Mercury

  • Messenger of the Gods

  • Appears in more myths than any other character


Aphrodite

  • Roman Name: Venus

  • Goddess of Love and Beauty

  • Sprang from the ocean foam


Dionysus

  • Roman Name: Bacchus

  • God of Wine and Festivities

  • Patron god of the Greek stage

  • A God of the Earth


Persephone

  • Roman Name: Proserpina

  • Goddess of the Underworld

  • Daughter of Zeus and Demeter

  • Abducted by Hades


Hebe

  • Roman Name: Juventas

  • Goddess of Youth

  • Cupbearer to the Gods

  • Restored youth to the aged


Eros

  • Roman Name: Cupid

  • Young God of Love

  • Son of Aphrodite and Hephaestus


Iris

  • Goddess of the Rainbow

  • Messenger for Zeus and Hera

  • Daughter of the titan Thaumus and the nymph Electra


Nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne

Inspired artists of all kinds

Goddesses who presided over the arts and sciences

“He is happy whom the muses love.”

The Muses

Clio, Urania, Thalia, Melpomene, Erato, Calliope, Euterpe, Terpsichore, Polyhymnia


The Graces

  • Three Goddesses of Grace and Beauty

  • “They give life its bloom.”

  • Aglaia (Splendor)

  • Euphrosyne (Mirth)

  • Thalia (Good Cheer)


The Erinnyes (The Furies)

  • Roman Name: Furiae or Dirae (The Furies)

  • Three Goddesses of Vengeance

    • Tisiphone

    • Alecto

    • Megaera

  • They punish evildoers.


The Fates

  • Roman Name: Parcae, Moirae

  • Three sisters

    • Clotho (“The Spinner”)

    • Lachesis (“The disposer of lots”)

    • Atropos (“The cutter”)

  • They weave, measure, and cut the thread of life for humans.


The Satyrs

  • Gods of the woods and mountains

  • “Shepherd gods”

  • Goat men (like Pan)

  • Companions of Dionysus

  • They like to drink, dance, and chase nymphs.


The Gorgons

  • Three snake-haired monsters

  • Medusa is most well-known

  • Their look turns men to stone.


The Centaurs

  • Half man, half horse

  • Savage creatures (except Chiron)

  • Followers of Dionysus


Sources

  • Graphics in this presentation were taken from the following web sites:

    • http://www.bulfinch.org/fables/search.html

    • http://www.pantheon.org/

    • http://www.messagenet.com/myths/

    • http://mythman.com/

    • http://web.uvic.ca/grs/bowman/myth/index.html

    • http://www.paleothea.com/

    • http://www.entrenet.com/%7Egroedmed/greekm/myth.html


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