Chapter 33
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Chapter 33. MH. Africa, the Middle East, and Asia in the Era of Independence . Gamal Abdul Nasser. 1918-1970 Took power in Egypt following a military coup in 1952; enacted land reforms and used state resources to reduce unemployment; ousted Britain from the Suez Canal zone in 1956.

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Chapter 33

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Chapter 33


Africa, the Middle East, and Asia in the Era of Independence

Gamal Abdul Nasser

  • 1918-1970

  • Took power in Egypt following a military coup in 1952; enacted land reforms and used state resources to reduce unemployment; ousted Britain from the Suez Canal zone in 1956.

Aswan Dam

  • An embankment dam (artificial water barrier) situated across the Nile River in Egypt; built between 1960-1970 following the Egyptian Revolution in the 1950’s. Majorly effected the economy and culture of Egypt.

Anwar Sadat

  • Successor to Gamal Abdul Nasser as ruler of Egypt; acted to dismantle costly state programs; accepted peace treaty with Israel in 1973; opened Egypt to investment by Western nations.

Ayatollah Khomeini

  • 1900-1989

  • Religious ruler of Iran following the revolution of 1979 to expel the Pahlavi shah of Iran; emphasized religious purification; tried to eliminate Western influences and establish purely Islamic government.

African National Congress

  • Black political organization within South Africa; pressed for end to policies of apartheid; sought open democracy leading to black majority; until the 1990s declared illegal in South Africa.

Nelson Mandela

  • Born 1918

  • Long-imprisoned leader of the African National Congress Party; worked with the ANC leadership and F. W. de Klerk’s supporters to dismantle the apartheid system from the mid-1980s onward; in 1994, became the first black prime minister of South Africa after the ANC won the first genuinely democratic elections in the country’s history.

Indira Gandhi

  • Daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru (no relation to Mahatma Gandhi); installed as a figurehead prime minister by the Congress party bosses in 1966; a strong-willed and astute politician, she soon became the central figure in India politics, a position she maintained through the 1970s and passed on to her sons.

Corazon Aquino

  • Born 1933

  • First president of the Phillippines in the post-Marcos era of the late 1980s; she served from 1986-1992; Aquino whose husband was assassinated by thugs in the pay of the Marcos regime, was one of the key leaders in the popular movement that toppled the dictator.

Benazir Bhutto

  • Twice prime minister of Pakistan in the 1980s and 1990s; first ran for office to avenge her father’s execution by the military clique then in power.

Muslim Brotherhood

  • Egyptian nationalist movement founded by Hasan al-Banna in 1928; committed to fundamentalist movement in Islam; fostered strikes and urban riots against the khedival government.

South African homelands

  • Territory set aside for black South Africans, also known as Bantustan

Evaluate why the new African and Asian states had such difficulty in establishing national identities

  • Population boom

  • Parasitic cities (unemployment in urban centers)

  • Neocolonialism

  • Cold War rivalries

  • Stunted economic development

Appraise the reasons for the high population growth rates in new Asian and African birthrates.

  • Food and crops from the New World

  • New railroads and steamships spread food.

  • Improved hygiene and medical system

  • Improved sewage systems and drinking water

  • Religion

  • Parents past dependency on children

  • Birth control = West’s way to meddle in affairs

Compare the cities in Asia, Africa, and Latin America with those of the West

  • West has economic prosperity

    • Less parasitic cities

  • Asia, Africa , and Latin America have slum settlements

  • Also over population with a lot of unemployment

    • More beggars and people in to petty crime

Define “neo-colonialism”

  • Neo- colonialism is the geopolitical practice of using capitalism, business globalization, and cultural imperialism to control a country, in lieu of either direct military control or indirect political control.

Compare Nasser’s military government with other military regimes

  • Most radical approach to economic and social reforms

  • Disbanded all political parties

  • Intervened in all aspects of Egyptian life

    • Limited land, paid for college education, gov was the biggest employer, restrictions on foreign investments

  • Imprisoned thousands and violated human rights

Compare post-independence policies in India and Egypt

  • Egypt turned into a dictatorship and also had the Free Officers Movement and the Muslim Brotherhood

  • India was a democracy and invested heavily in the Green Revolution

Summarize the influences that contributed to Islamic fundamentalists gaining power in Iran

  • Iran was in a state of turmoil due to the Islamic Revolution in 1979, which allowed Islamic Fundamentalists to have more of a sway

Evaluate whether the problems in newly independent Asian and African nations were the creation of imperialism or the result of indigenous factors.

  • Both were factors in creating problems in Africa and Asia

  • The indigenous people were unable to control their population and couldn’t follow through on promises

  • Large migration to urban areas lead to parasitic cities and endangered ecosystems

  • Neocolonial economies hurt developing nations

Compare the political, social, and economic development of Asian and African countries after independence with the countries of Latin America

  • Political- both had political power struggles between communism and democracy

  • Social- women’s status still low, not much government participation

  • Economic- economic strife, lack of industrialization and dependency on neocolonial economy

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