The presidency
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The Presidency. Standard. SSCG13: The student will describe the qualifications for becoming President of the United States. Duties of the President.

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The Presidency

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The presidency

The Presidency


Standard

Standard

  • SSCG13: The student will describe the qualifications for becoming President of the United States


Duties of the president

Duties of the President

The constitutional duties of the nation’s first president, George Washington, and those of a modern president are much the same. However, presidents today have enormous power and responsibility.


Duties of the president1

Duties of the President

Among the duties of the president are:

  • Commander in chief of armed forces

  • Appoints (with Senate consent) heads of executive departments, federal court judges and other top officials


Duties of the president2

Duties of the President

3 Makes treaties with the advice and consent of the Senate

4 Meets with heads of state

5 Hosts foreign officials


Duties of the president3

Duties of the President

  • Appoints ambassadors to represent the United States in other countries

  • Ensures that all the laws of the United States are “faithfully executed” (a vast bureaucracy assists the president)


Duties of the president4

Duties of the President

  • Pardons people convicted of federal crimes, except impeachment

  • Reduces a person’s jail sentence or fine


Duties of the president5

Duties of the President

  • Delivers an annual State of the Union Address to Congress

  • Leadership role in proposing policy changes


President s term

President’s Term

  • Originally, the Constitution did not specify how many four-year terms a president could serve.

  • George Washington set a long held precedent when he served eight years and refused to run for a third term


President s term1

President’s Term

  • In 1940 and 1944, Franklin D. Roosevelt broke this tradition when he ran and was elected for a third and fourth term.


President s term2

President’s Term

  • In 1951, Congress proposed and the states ratified the 22nd Amendment as a reaction to Roosevelt’s four terms and concern over too much executive power.


President s term3

President’s Term

  • This amendment secured the traditional presidential limitation of two terms, while allowing a vice president who takes over the presidency and serves two years or less of the former president’s term to serve two additional terms. Thus it is possible for a president to serve up to 10 years.


Salary and benefits

Salary and Benefits

  • Salary - $400,000 annually

  • Nontaxable travel allowance - $100,000 annually

  • Congress cannot increase or decrease a the salary during a president’s term


Salary and benefits1

Salary and Benefits

  • Air Force One, other planes, helicopters and limousines are made available

  • Free medical, dental and health care


Salary and benefits2

Salary and Benefits

  • Live in the White House, a 132-room mansion with a swimming pool, bowling alley, private movie theater and tennis courts

  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/inside-white-house/interactive-tour


The presidency

  • Large White House domestic staff

  • Pays all expenses of operating the White House that relate to government business

  • Free office space, free mailing service and $96,000 annually for office help


Salary and benefits3

Salary and Benefits

  • Lifetime pension of $148,400 annually when they retire

  • After the death of the president, the spouse is eligible for a pension of $20,000 annually


Presidential qualifications

Presidential Qualifications

Constitutional Requirements

  • Natural-born citizen of the United States

  • At least 35 years old

  • Resident of the United States for at least 14 years before taking office

    These requirements are found in Article II, Section I of the Constitution. The same requirements apply to the vice president. Why?


Unwritten presidential qualifications

Unwritten Presidential Qualifications

  • Experience in government (provides the opportunity to form political alliances and gain name recognition)

  • Money (candidates must have the ability to raise money to pay for very costly campaigns)

  • Political views (both parties tend to choose people with moderate party views to appeal to a wide variety of people)


Personal characteristics of past presidents

Personal Characteristics of Past Presidents

  • Northern European family backgrounds

  • Middle – class backgrounds (some exceptions)

  • Male

  • White (Obama is exception)

  • Married

  • Protestant (exception – John F. Kennedy – Catholic)


The vp and electoral college

The VP and Electoral College


The vice president

The Vice President


The role of the vice president

The Role of the Vice President

The Constitution gives the vice president only two duties.

1) The vice president presides over the

Senate as President of the Senate and vote

in that house in case of a tie.

2) The vice president helps decide if the

president is disabled and acts as

president should that occur.


25 th amendment

25th Amendment

  • Article II is unclear about what will happen if a president is unfit to do his job. Congress amended the Constitution to include:

    • Section 4: Emergency provision that allows the Vice President and members of the Cabinet to declare the President unfit to carry out the duties of the Presidency.  


The presidency

  • Fourteen vice presidents have become president.

  • Nine of these have succeeded to the office upon the death or resignation of the president.


Modern responsibilities

Modern Responsibilities

  • A vice president’s work and power depend upon what responsibilities, if any, the president assigns.

  • The presidents before Eisenhower usually ignored their vice presidents.

  • Since Eisenhower, presidents have tried to give their vice presidents more responsibility.

Vice President Joe Biden


Modern responsibilities1

Modern Responsibilities

  • Participate in policy discussions

  • Special assignments such as making speeches to defend the president’s policies

  • Diplomatic activities such as representing the president overseas

  • Member of the National Security Council


So how do we actually elect a president

So… how do we actually elect a president?


Electoral college clip

Electoral College (clip)

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ok_VQ8I7g6I


What do the following four men all have in common

What do the following four men all have in common?

  • A. Andrew Jackson

  • B. Samuel Tilden

  • C. Grover Cleveland

  • D. Al Gore


The answer

The Answer

  • They all won the popular vote in a Presidential election but did not become President.


The presidency

1824

  • Popular Vote

    Andrew Jackson 43%

    John Q. Adams 30.5%

    Electoral Vote

    Jackson99 votes

    Adams 84

    * Adams elected by House of Representatives when Jackson did not receive a majority of the Electoral votes


The presidency

1876

  • Popular Vote

    Samuel Tilden51%

    R. B. Hayes48%

    Electoral College

    Tilden 184

    Hayes185

    Winner: Hayes


The presidency

1888

  • Popular Vote

    Grover Cleveland48.5 %

    Benjamin Harrison47.8 %

    Electoral College

    Cleveland168

    Harrison233

    Winner: Harrison


The presidency

2000

  • Popular Vote

    Albert Gore48.7%

    George W. Bush48.5%

    Electoral College

    Gore266

    Bush271

    Winner: Bush


The presidency

Why?

  • We do not pick our President by direct ballot. We only select electors. These electors form what is called the Electoral College and are the people who officially elect the President.


Terms to know

Terms to Know

  • General election: held every four years and includes the presidential election as well as congressional, state, and local elections.

  • Electoral College: A group of people named by each state legislature to select the President and Vice President


Terms to know1

Terms to Know

  • Elector: member of a political party chosen in each state to formally elect the president and vice president

  • Electoral vote: official vote for president and vice president by electors in each state

  • Popular vote: the vote for a U.S. presidential candidate made by the qualified voters, as opposed to that made by the electoral college


Election day

Election Day

  • By US law the general election day is:

    • the first Tuesday after the first Monday of Nov.


The presidency

  • During the General Election when casting a popular vote for a particular candidate, voters are actually voting for whom the electors will cast a ballot. These electors in turn cast an Electoral vote for that candidate in the Electoral College.


Why was it created

Why was it Created?

  • Un-informed voter protection

  • States were given a voice in choosing the President

  • To maintain regional balance


The electoral college was devised for 3 reasons

The Electoral College was devised for 3 reasons

1. The framers of the Constitution feared direct democracy. Hamilton and the other founders did not trust the population to make the right choice.

“election should be made by men most capable of analyzing the qualities adapted to the station” – James Madison


The electoral college was devised for 3 reasons1

The Electoral College was devised for 3 reasons

2. The founding fathers wanted to protect the interests of smaller states and rural areas


The electoral college was devised for 3 reasons2

The Electoral College was devised for 3 reasons

3.The Electoral College helps give everyone a say in the election by creating a balance between heavily populated areas that may not share the same concerns as other regions in the country


The presidency

  • Presidential Electors are nominated by their state political parties in the summer before the Popular Vote on Election Day


Electors

ELECTORS

The number of electors for each state is based on

# of senators + # of representatives

Georgia has 16 Electoral votes

All states have a minimum of 3 electoral votes


The presidency

The party that wins a state gets to cast all of the electoral votes. This is known as a Winner Take-all System(2 exceptions: Maine & Nebraska)


The presidency

The Presidential Electors meet in their respective state capitols in December, 41 days following the election, at which time they cast their electoral votes. Thus the "electoral college" never meets as one national body.


The presidency

Candidates must receive a majority of the electoral vote to be declared the President-elect or Vice-President-elect


Electoral votes

ELECTORAL VOTES

435 U.S. Representatives

+

100 U.S. Senators

= 535 electoral votes

+ 3 electoral votes (Washington D.C.)

-----------------------------------------

= 538 total electoral votes (majority: 270)


The presidency

If no candidate for President receives an absolute electoral majority 270 votes out of the 538 possible, then the House of Representatives is required to go into session immediately to vote for President. (an even split would be 269 votes)


The presidency

As of 2012, the House of Representatives has elected the President on two occasions, in 1801 (Thomas Jefferson) and in 1825 ( John Quincy Adams).


Wait a second

Wait a second….

  • What are the drawbacks to the Electoral College???


What are the drawbacks to the electoral college

What are the drawbacks to the Electoral College?

  • Encourages low voter turnout

  • Diminishes third party influence

  • Person with most popular votes may not win

  • Leads to tactical, insincere voting

  • If there is no majority winner in the Electoral College, the election goes to the H.o. R and there is a loss of separation of powers


Why low voter turnout

Why low voter turnout?

  • The Electoral College is a winner take all system of deciding who receives a states electoral votes. Consequently, if a person gets 50.1% of the popular vote (in a two man race), he get 100% of the electoral votes. Therefore, many people feel that their vote does not matter and choose to not vote.


Third parties

Third Parties

  • The Electoral College discourages 3rd parties because a candidate must have a broad based, national platform to have a chance to gain the highest office. Rarely are 3rd parties financially and politically able to do this.


Tactical voting

Tactical Voting

  • Voters often resort to tactical voting in Presidential elections because the person they truly support cannot win the all of the electoral votes. For instance, many people would have preferred Ralph Nader (of the Green Party) in the 2000 Presidential election but knew that he was not going to win. Instead, they often voted for Al Gore because he was the major candidate with the platform closest to Nader.


Electoral map after the 2000 election

Electoral Map after the 2000 Election


The 2008 presidential election

The 2008 Presidential Election


In class activity

In-Class Activity

  • Given the electoral map on the previous slide, students will be asked the following hypothetical question; If you were running for President with limited money and could only focus on a few states, where would you focus your campaign?

  • (Only 11 states are needed to become President.)


The electoral map

The Electoral Map

  • Which state has the most electoral votes? How many?

  • What is the least number of electoral votes per state? Explain

  • Do you think that the Electoral College is a good way to elect the

  • president? Why or why not?


Presidential powers

Presidential Powers

  • Many presidential powers are not listed in the Constitution.

  • The Office of the President and it’s powers are influenced by the actual person in the office.


Roles of the president

Roles of the President

  • Head of State

  • Chief Executive

  • Chief Legislator

  • Economic Planner

  • Party Leader

  • Chief Diplomat

  • Commander in Chief


The presidency

  • The president has broad powers.

  • The president can issue rules, regulations, and instructions called executive orders, which have the binding force of law upon federal agencies but do not require congressional approval.

  • The president may also negotiate with foreign countries "executive agreements" that are not subject to Senate confirmation.


Head of state

Head of State

  • The president represents the nation and performs many ceremonial roles.

  • The president is both head of state and chief executive. In most countries, these two roles are held by separate people.

  • Hosts kings, queens, and heads of governments…throws out first pitch.


Chief executive

Chief Executive

  • Carries out laws passed by Congress.

  • The executive branch employs more than two million people to enforce the laws and programs passed by Congress.


Chief legislator

Chief Legislator

  • President proposes legislation to Congress.

  • The president describes his legislative program in the annual State of the Union address.


Economic planner

Economic Planner

The Employment Act of 1946 expanded the president’s role as economic planner by

  • requiring the president to submit an annual economic report to Congress

  • creating a Council of Economic Advisors

  • requiring the government to promote the economic development of the country

  • requiring the president to prepare an annual budget


Party leader

Party Leader

  • He may give speeches or attend fundraisers to help raise money for the party.

  • President appoints chairperson, and plans future elections.

  • Presidents are expected to appoint party members to available jobs. (patronage)


Chief diplomat

Chief Diplomat

  • The president (and Congress) make key decisions about the relations the United States has with other countries.

  • The president has an advantage because s/he has more access to information than Congress.


Commander in chief

Commander in Chief

  • Although other military leaders run the military on a day-to-day basis, the president is responsible for key military decisions.

  • The president may also use the military to control serious disorders in the nation.


The cabinet

The Cabinet

  • One of the president’s first duties is to organize and staff the executive branch of government.

  • Today, the president appoints the secretaries that head the 15 major executive departments.

  • The 15 secretaries, the vice president and several other top officials make up the president’s cabinet.


Major factors in appointments

Major Factors in Appointments

  • A major consideration is that the appointee have a compatible background with the department he or she will lead.

  • Another consideration is geographic balance.(ex: Secretary of Ag is typically from a farm state, Sec of HUD is from a big city.)

  • Acceptability to interest groups is also important. (Secretary of Labor must be acceptable to labor groups)

  • Experience in the role they are assuming is also important, along with race and gender balances.


The presidency

  • As women and minority groups have gained political power, presidents have considered race and gender when selecting their cabinet.

  • Robert Weaver became the first African-American department leader when Lyndon Johnson appointed him as the head of HUD. FDR appointed the first woman to the cabinet with Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins.


The role of the cabinet

The Role of the Cabinet

  • The cabinet is intended to serve as an advisory body to the president.

  • The cabinet meets when the president calls it together.

  • Recent presidents have used their cabinets as more of a sounding board for ideas rather than the advisory body that President Washington had envisioned.


The executive office

The Executive Office

  • The Executive Office of the President (EOP) consists of individuals and agencies that directly assist the president.

  • Today’s EOP consists of the White House Office and several specialized agencies that all report directly to the president.

  • The Office of Management & Budget (OMB) is the largest agency in the EOP.

  • The OMB prepares the national budget that the president proposes to Congress each year.


The white house office

The White House Office

  • The White House Office has become one of the most important parts of the EOP.

  • These top assistants become the inner circle around the president.

  • Positions include the president’s chief of staff, White House counsel, and press secretary.

  • Key aides to the president decide what or who gets through to the president.


Presidential succession

Presidential Succession

  • Eight presidents have died in office (four were assassinated and four died of natural causes)

  • After Kennedy’s assassination in 1963, the country realized that the rules for presidential succession established by the Constitution were inadequate.

  • The Twenty-fifth Amendment ratified in 1967 established the order of succession to the presidency and spelled out what happened when the vice presidency becomes vacant.

  • This amendment was first applied in 1973 after Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned and was replaced by Gerald Ford. Less than a year later, Nixon resigned and Ford became president and nominated Nelson Rockefeller as vice president. This has been the only time in our nation’s history that neither the president nor the vice president were elected.


Presidential succession1

Presidential Succession

  • The Vice President

  • Speaker of the House

  • President Pro Tempore of the Senate

  • Secretary of State

  • Secretary of the Treasury

  • Secretary of Defense

  • Attorney General

  • Secretary of the Interior

  • Secretary of Agriculture

  • Secretary of Commerce

  • Secretary of Labor

  • Secretary of Health

  • Secretary of Housing

  • Secretary of Transportation

  • Secretary of Energy

  • Secretary of Education

  • Secretary of Veterans Affairs

  • Secretary of Homeland Security


Presidential disability

Presidential Disability

The Twenty-fifth Amendment sets forth a series of rules to be followed when a president is disabled. The amendment provides that the vice president becomes acting president under one of the following two conditions:

1) if the president informs Congress of his or her inability

to perform the duties of the office

2) if the vice president and a majority of the cabinet or

another body authorized by law informs Congress that the

president is unable to perform the duties of the office

The provisions of this amendment allow the president to resume the powers and duties of president at any time by simply notifying Congress that the disability no longer exists. If the vice president, a majority of the cabinet or other authorized body disagrees with this assessment, Congress has to settle the dispute within 21 days. Unless the Congress decides in favor of the vice president by a 2/3’s vote in each house, the president may resume office.


Inauguration impeachment

Inauguration, Impeachment


Inauguration

Inauguration

  • The new president is called the president-elect until the inauguration which takes place at noon on January 20th in the year following the election.


Inauguration1

Inauguration

  • The president-elect rides with the outgoing president from the White House to the Capitol for the ceremony.


Inauguration2

Inauguration

  • The Constitution requires the president to take a simple oath.

  • The chief justice administers the oath and the new president makes an inaugural address.


Impeachment

Impeachment

  • Expressed power of the legislature to bring formal charges against a government official for crimes committed in office.

  • Removal of an official on conviction is separate from impeachment.


Impeachment article ii section 4 us const

ImpeachmentArticle II, Section 4 (US Const)

  • “The President, Vice President, and all civil Officers of the United States shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other High Crimes and Misdemeanors.”


The presidency

  • Ben Franklin noted that the removal of “obnoxious” chief executives had been accomplished by assassination. He suggested that a proceduralized mechanism for removal would be preferable.


Impeachment1

Impeachment

  • Two presidents have been impeached:

  • Andrew Johnson

  • Bill Clinton

  • Both were acquitted before being removed from office.


Impeachment2

Impeachment

  • Andrew Johnson

  • Impeached for intentionally violating the Tenure of Office Act.

  • Impeachment voted for in the House, 128 to 47.

  • The Senate fell one vote short of the 2/3rds majority required for conviction.


Impeachment3

Impeachment

  • Bill Clinton

  • Impeached for perjury (228-206) and obstruction of justice (221-212).

  • The Senate fell 17 votes short of the 2/3rds majority required for conviction.


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