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Scale up of HIV-related prevention, diagnosis, care and treatment for infants and children. A Programming F ramework. CONTENTS. Background: Putting HIV care and treatment for children in context Components of the care package: Interventions to aid child survival in the context of HIV

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Scale up of hiv related prevention diagnosis care and treatment for infants and children l.jpg

Scale up of HIV-related prevention, diagnosis, care and treatment for infants and children

A Programming Framework


Contents l.jpg

CONTENTS

  • Background: Putting HIV care and treatment for children in context

  • Components of the care package: Interventions to aid child survival in the context of HIV

  • Key Strategies: 7 Strategies and action points for scaling up HIV diagnosis, care, support and treatment for children

  • Resources and Tools: Links to key resources


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I. BACKGROUNDHIV burden among children

  • 2 million children (under 15 yrs old) have HIV

    • 90% live in sub-Saharan Africa

  • Nearly 370 000 children were newly infected in 2007

    • Most infections could be avoided through PMTCT interventions


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BACKGROUNDHIV affects child survival

  • Without treatment, 50% of children with HIV die by age 2 (30% by age 1)

  • About 270 000 children died of causes related to HIV in 2007, most from sub-Saharan Africa

  • Those with HIV are more likely to die from common childhood illnesses (respiratory infections, TB, malaria, undernutrition, etc.), including those who survive the first year of their life


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BACKGROUNDScope of the Programming Framework

  • To guide governments in resource constrained settings scale up HIV prevention, diagnosis, care and treatment for children who are exposed to or who have HIV

  • Focuses on the needs of countries with a high HIV burden


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BACKGROUNDGuiding Principles for peds care and treatment


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II. COMPONENTS OF THE CARE PACKAGE

All children

1. Interventions for all infants and children to aid survival

2. Survival interventions for infants and children who are exposed to HIV

HIV exposed

children

HIV pos

children

3. Survival interventions for infants and children who are infected with HIV


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1. Interventions for all children to aid survival

  • Newborn care, including

    • Skilled care at birth

    • Early initiation of exclusive breastfeeding

    • Early postnatal visit

  • Prevention interventions, including

    • Exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age

    • Good maternal nutrition

    • Growth monitoring

    • Complete, timely immunization

  • Treatment interventions, including

    • Oral rehydration therapy for diarrhoea

    • Prompt treatment for pneumonia and malaria


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2. Survival interventions for infants and children who are exposed to HIV

  • Antiretroviral prophylaxis (maternal and infant)

  • Provider-initiated HIV testing,

    including infant viral testing

  • Early and regular clinical assessment

  • Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis

  • Counseling and support around

    nutrition and infant feeding

  • Care, treatment and support for family members


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3. Survival interventions for infants and children who have HIV

  • Early antiretroviral therapy and follow-up care

  • Adherence and treatment support

  • Regular clinical and laboratory monitoring

  • Psychosocial support

  • TB screening, prevention and management


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3. Survival interventions for infants and children who have HIV (cont.)

  • Nutrition, infant and young child feeding

    • Macronutritional support, vitamin supplementation, regular growth monitoring

  • Management of severe malnutrition

  • Prevention, active early detection and management of opportunistic

    infections

    • Pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria

  • Additional Immunizations


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III. STRATEGIES FOR SCALING UP

  • Enhance government leadership, ownership and accountability

  • Integrate and decentralize delivery of HIV prevention, diagnosis, care and treatment services to children

  • Enhance early identification of infants who are exposed to or have HIV

  • Ensure reliable procurement and supply management

  • Bolster laboratory capacity

  • Strengthen community-based capacity for care and support

  • Strengthen monitoring and evaluation systems


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1. Enhance government leadership, ownership, and accountability

  • Initiate a rapid, systemic situational analysis of current programming, including an assessment on pediatric interventions

  • Update pediatric treatment targets

  • Ensure that management and coordination structures address pediatric care and treatment


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2. Integrate and decentralize delivery of HIV prevention, care, support and treatment services to children

Integrate HIV diagnosis, care, treatment, and support for children into:

  • Existing HIV care and treatment services

  • Existing maternal, newborn and child health programs

    Decentralize:

  • Interventions to lower-level health systems where applicable

  • Utilize communities for early identification and provision of care


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2. Integrate and decentralize delivery

Simplified approaches to dosing and use of simplified formulations such as FDCs help to decentralize pediatric care

Pediatric Dosing Chart example


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3. Enhance early identification of infants and children who are exposed to or have HIV

  • Ensure updated policy and technical guidance that follow-up with identified HIV-exposed infants and children

  • Document info on receipt of serves for PMTCT on maternal and child health cards

  • Use DBS to support early diagnosis

  • Implement provider-initiated testing and counseling at sites likely to yield a high volume of positive test results


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3. Enhance early identification of infants and children who are exposed to or have HIV (cont.)

  • Use family-centered approaches; secure HIV testing for additional family members

  • Use IMCI and IMAI approaches at peripheral sites with referral for HIV testing

  • Better use CHWs

  • Identify where routine determination of HIV exposure status is feasible and efficient


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3. Enhance early identification of infants and children who are exposed to or have HIV (cont.)E.g.: Child Health Card (Zambia)

Test

Follow-up time

Co-trimoxazole

Date baby referred to ART; Date initiated; Age of initiation

Infant feeding


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3. Enhanced early identification of infants and children who are exposed to or have HIV (cont.)

Simple tools that explain the process of sample collection for DBS can help ensure high quality samples are collected


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Example of EID System (Kenya)

Care for child

Potential

Bottleneck!

1 day

Packaging

4 days

Sample Collection

2 Week turnaround to receipt of results

Potential

Bottleneck!

ART/PMTCT centre

Courier Samples

1 day

1 day

5 days

Source: J. Hungu, CHAI

Testing lab

Courier Results


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4. Ensure reliable procurement and supply management

  • Coordination of supply stakeholders and linkages with overall supply implementation plans

  • Integrated supply systems based on what exists and already works

  • Ensure children are included in national PSM plans


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5. Bolster laboratory capacity

  • Plan for lab service expansion to accommodate early infant testing for HIV

  • Select assays for viral diagnosis

  • Develop systems for timely and reliable use of lab results

  • Provide staff with appropriate education and training to ensure high-quality diagnostic services


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6. Strengthen community-based capacity for care and support

  • Integrate community-based approaches into child health and HIV programming strategies

  • Accelerate case-finding through integration into community-health programmes

  • Improve case follow-up and essential care for HIV-exposed newborns and their families

  • Enhance community capacity to provide care and support

  • Promote child survival through nutrition, immunization, malaria, and TB interventions

  • Adapt norms for confidentiality and disclosure to specific local settings


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7. Strengthen monitoring and evaluation systems

  • Include core indicators of PMTCT and HIV care and treatment services for children in national monitoring and evaluation frameworks

  • Expand efforts to monitor programme effectiveness and quality


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IV. SELECTED RESOURCES AND TOOLS

  • Guidance documents

  • Websites

  • Training curricula

  • Tools


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1. Guidance documents referred to in the Programming Framework

  • WHO

    • Guidelines

  • African Network for Care of Children Affected by HIV/AIDS (ANNECA)

    • Handbook

  • Columbia University ICAP

    • Pocket Guide and Clinical Manual

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    • A range of tools to support programming


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2. Websites

  • WHO HIV/AIDS: http://www.who.int/hiv/en

  • UNICEF: http://www.unicef.org

  • International HIV/AIDS Alliance: http://www.aidsalliance.org

  • Mothers2Mothers (m2m): http://www.m2m.org

  • Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation: http://www.pedaids.org


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3. Training Curricula

  • IMAI/IMCI

    • Complementary course on HIV/AIDS (chart booklet)

  • WHO/UNICEF

    • Infant and young child feeding counseling: an integrated course

  • African Network for the Care of Children affected by HIV/AIDS (ANECCA)

    • An HIV care training curriculum


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4. Tools

  • Spectrum

    • software package developed by UNAIDS, used to determine consequences of current trends and future programme interventions with respect to the HIV epidemic

    • For more info, visit http://www.unaids.org/en/KnowledgeCentre/HIVData/Methodology


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