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International Conference on Kurt Lewin: Contribution to Contemporary Psychology. Casimirus The Great University of Bydgoszcz, Institute of Psychology September 10-12, 2004 Mogilno, Poland. Symposium 2

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International Conference on Kurt Lewin:Contribution to Contemporary Psychology.Casimirus The Great University of Bydgoszcz, Institute of PsychologySeptember 10-12, 2004 Mogilno, Poland

Symposium 2

  • Lawrence Sherman (convener): Kurt Lewin's contribution to the theory and practice of education in the United States of America: The importance of cooperative learning.

    Participants:

  • Richard Schmuck, University of Oregon, USA

  • Patricia Schmuck, Lewis and Clark College, Portland, Oregon USA

  • Lawrence W. Sherman, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio USA

  • This Presentation will be available on the web from Lawrence Sherman’s home page at:

  • http://www.users.muohio.edu/shermalw


Kurt Lewin Memorial: Mogilno, Poland, 2004

BH = f (P * E)

Democratic/Autocratic/Laissez-faire Leadership

Group Dynamics

Action Research

Frustration/Regression

Level of Aspiration

Sensitivity Training, T-groups


Larry sherman left richard center and pat right schmuck mogilno poland september 12 2004
Larry Sherman (left), Richard (center) and Pat (right) SchmuckMogilno, Poland, September 12, 2004



Kurt lewin s focus on children
Kurt Lewin’s Focus on Children

  • Initial post at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, in the School of Home Economics.

  • University of Iowa, Professor of Child Psychology, Iowa Child Welfare Research Station (now the Institute of Child Behavior and Research

  • Comment: Alfred Marrow states: “ Although his academic title was Professor of Child Psychology and most of the studies in the years that followed were of children, Lewin’s concern continued to be general psychological theory and experiment.” (Marrow, 1969, p. 87) We believe, however, that this heritage became an important influence or well spring which had considerable influence on American educational practice.


FOREIGN HULL

VECTORS

VALENCES

PERSON

B

A

R

R

I

E

R

G

O

A

L

R

E

G

I

O

N

-

+

NEEDS

ABILITIES

PSYCHOLOGICAL LIFE SPACE


Alfred Marrow, Student of Kurt Lewin and author of

The Practical Theorist: The Life and Work of Kurt Lewin,

(1969)

Kurt Lewin Memorial Award,

1964


Morton Deutsch, 1968

Kurt Lewin Memorial Award

“A Theory of Cooperation and Competition,”

Human Relations, 1949, 2, 129-152.

“An Experimental Study of the Effects of

Cooperation and Competition upon Group

Process,” Human Relations, 1949, 2, 153-158.

Major influence on David Johnson’s

contributions to the world of cooperative

learning.


Ron and peg lippitt ann arbor michigan 1960 s
Ron and Peg LippittAnn Arbor, Michigan 1960’s?

With Lewin and White: Social Climates (democratic, autocratic and laissez-faire leadership styles)

Action Research


Some other interesting lewinian connections and influences on american educational practice
Some other interesting Lewinian connections and influences on American educational practice

  • Robert Rosenthal and the Experimenter Biasing Effect, otherwise know as the “Pygmalion Effect”. He reports that this line of study was inspired by his interest and eventual re-publication of the book, Clever Hans, originally published by Otto Pfunst and Carl Stumpf. Carl Stumpf was the director of the Psychological Laboratory at the University of Berlin and is also credited as Lewin’s “dissertation father” by Alfred Marrow.

  • This year (2004) marks the 50th anniversary of the United States Supreme Court’s 1954 Brown vs the Board of Education decision regarding “separate but equal” schools. Kenneth B. Clark’s major testimony along with Gordon Allport and Stuart Cook, before that court was very influential. Clark, Allport and Cook were all past member of Lewin’s Commission on Community Interrelations (C.C.I.). Details of Clark’s involvement have recently been highlighted in the APA’s Monitor on Psychology, Volumn 35, No. 8, pp 56-72. I am presently interested in what some are calling the “Re-segregation” of American schools.


The international association for the study of cooperation in education i a s c e
The International Association for the Study of Cooperation in Education (I.A.S.C.E)

Our genealogy

Sherman’s first involvement in 1988 with two presentations, Both dealing with uses of Cooperative Learning pedagogy in “higher education”:

  • Sherman (1988)

  • Sherman & Woy-Hazelton (1988)


Five basic elements of cooperative learning
Five Basic Elements of Cooperative Learning in Education (I.A.S.C.E)

  • Positive Interdependence:

  • Individual Accountability:

  • Face To Face Interactions:

  • Heterogeneous Grouping:

  • Social Skills:


Dick and Pat Schmuck, 1988, IASCE Conference, Tel Aviv, Israel

Pat was also a student of Ron Lippitt.

Pat is a Professor at Lewis & Clark College, Portland Oregon

Dick is a Professor Emeritus, University of Oregon


PAT (left) and RICHARD (center) SCHMUCK Israel

AND SHLOMO SHARAN (right),

IASCE CONFERENCE

1988, TEL AVIV, ISRAEL


Richard Schmuck (right) and Shlomo Sharan (left) Israel

Israel,1988 IASCE Conference

Shlomo is a Professor at the Tel Aviv University and a

Past President of the IASCE


Recent history of the i a s c e
RECENT HISTORY OF THE IsraelI.A.S.C.E

  • OUR RECENT HISTORY IS AVAILABLE AT THE FOLLOWING ADDRESS:

  • HTTP://WWW.USERS.MUOHIO.EDU/SHERMALW/iasce's history.doc

  • Additional information on the IASCE is available on the web at: http://www.iasce.net

  • First established in 1979 when it held it’s first conference in Israel. Richard Schmuck became it’s first President.

  • IASCE celebrated it’s 25th Anniversary this year at its most recent International Conference in Singapore.


Richard schmuck
Richard Schmuck Israel

Action Research


Reflective professional practice
Reflective Professional Practice Israel

Mature

Gaining

Collaborative Action Research

Experience

Public Dialogue

Solitary Dialogue

Self

Focus on Self

Focus on Others

Focus on Results

New in Field

Individual

Increasing Collaboration


Stp concepts
STP Concepts Israel

P

T

Desired Target

S

Current Situation

path – plan – procedure – project - proposal


Force field analysis current situation s
Force-Field Analysis IsraelCurrent Situation(S)

Facilitating Forces

Restraining Forces

Most desired state on this side

Undesirable state on this side


Defining action research
Defining Action Research Israel

  • Action Research is to study a real school situation with a view to improve the quality of actions and results within it.

  • Action Research aims to improve professional judgment, and to give into how better to achieve desirable educational goals.

  • Action Research is continuous and cyclical.


Traditional research

A social studies teacher must write a field study to earn a master’s degree. He is required to state a research question, review what the research literature says about the question, and collect data in schools other than his own to answer the question. His research question is: Do only children and first borns, compared to later borns, assume more leadership positions in the student government? His literature review reveals a mixed case with a tendency for first borns (but not only children) to take on student leadership positions more often than later borns.

The teacher prepares a questionnaire to measure birth order and involvement in student government. He collects data from students at ten high schools in a neighboring county. He writes up the results along with literature review, research methods, data analysis, and conclusion. In the conclusion he must return to the literature review- to show how his study adds to the accumulating literature on the subject. His paper is read by his wife and a colleague and approved by two professors. Is is stored in a cabinet at the College of Education.

Traditional Research


Action research

A social studies teacher joins a network of teachers doing action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,

faculty, and the administration; and works with an action-research team of council and faculty members to improve council functioning. She announces new practices at a faculty meeting and a student assembly and works with the team to implement them. Later, team members interview new council members to see how the new practices are going. At the end of the school year, council members interview a sample of students and faculty members about the council’s work. After the teacher reports on the project at a network meeting, a counselor from another school asks her to help him do a similar project.

Action Research


Differences between action and traditional researchers
Differences Between Action and Traditional Researchers action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,


Two kinds of research
Two Kinds of Research action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,

Traditional

Action

What one is personally doing

Seek continuous change

Reflective

Strive for development and planned change

Personally involved

What others are doing

Seek explanation and truth

Objective

Strive for knowledge

Removed from research site

Data collection

Inquiry

Problem solving


Proactive action research
PROACTIVE ACTION RESEARCH action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,

  • TRYING A NEW PRACTICE (to have a different effect or to bring about better outcomes)

  • INCORPORATING HOPES AND CONCERNS INTO PRACTICE

  • COLLECTING DATA TO TRACK STUDENTS’ REACTIONS

  • CHECKIG ON WHAT THE DATA MEAN

  • REFLECTING ON ALTERNATIVE WAYS TO BEHAVE

  • TRYING ANOTHER NEW PRACTICE


Steps to proactive research
Steps to Proactive Research action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,


Responsive action research
RESPONSIVE ACTION RESEARCH action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,

  • COLLECTING DATA TO DIAGNOSE THE SITUATION

  • ANALYZING THE DATA FOR THEMES AND ACTION IDEAS

  • PRESENTING THE DATA AND ANNOUNCING CHANGES

  • TRYING A NEW PRACTICE

  • CHECKING TO SEE HOW OTHERS ARE REACTING

  • COLLECTING DATA TO ASSESS THE SITUATION


Steps to responsive action research
Steps to Responsive Action Research action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,


Patricia schmuck lewis clark college portland oregon
Patricia Schmuck action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,Lewis & Clark CollegePortland, Oregon

Ronald Lippitt’s Social Science Curriculum and Action Research


Social science resource book laboratory units

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESOURCE BOOK: action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,LABORATORY UNITS

AUTHORS:

RONALD LIPPITT, PROFESSOR OF PSYCHOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

ROGERT FOX, PROFESSOR OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

LUCILLE SCHAIBLE, EDUCATOR AND WRITER

SCIENCE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES, INC., CHICAGO, IL


Unit 1 learning to use social science
UNIT 1 - Learning to Use Social Science action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,

  • Scientists Who Ask Questions About People

  • Behavior

  • What Is a Behavior Specimen

  • Three Ways to Use Observation

  • Who Goes There?

  • Cause and Effect

  • The New Neighbor

  • Miltiple Causation

  • Circular Process

  • Special Ways of Asking Questions

  • Asking Qauestions About the Future

  • How Social Scientists Test Predictions


Unit 2 discovering differences
Unit 2 - Discovering Differences action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,

  • What Makes People Different

  • No Girls Allowed

  • Six Years of Silence

  • We See the Same Things Differently

  • Squash Makes Me Sick!

  • Where Do We Get Likes and Dislikes?

  • What Is a Group?

  • Stereotypes


Unit 3 friendly and unfriendly behavior
Unit 3 - Friendly and Unfriendly Behavior action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,

  • Friendly and Unfriendly Behavior

  • Friendly or Unfriendly?

  • The Present - Feelings and Intentions

  • Once Burned, Twice Shy

  • Warm or Cold?

  • The Hill Club

  • Unfriendliness off Target?

  • Robbers’ Cave Experiment


Unit 4 being and becoming
Unit 4 - Being and Becoming action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,

  • Being and Becoming

  • Growth and Development

  • Charlotte

  • Cliff

  • Intelligence - Can It Be Tested?

  • Viki - Chimp and Child

  • Expectations - The Science Report


Unit 5 individuals and groups
Unit 5 - Individuals and Groups action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,

  • Individual - Group Behavior

  • Alone or Together?

  • Jamie Alone

  • The Aquarium Committee

  • Autocracy and Democracy

  • Group Pressure - The Majority Wins

  • The Deviant in the Group


Unit 6 deciding and doing
Unit 6 - Deciding and Doing action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,

  • Who Makes Decisions?

  • What Happened?

  • Lingon’s Lake I

  • Lingon’s Lake II

  • Making a Poster

  • What Links Deciding to Doing?

  • What’s the Problem?

  • Solving Problems


Unit 7 influencing each other
Unit 7 - Influencing Each Other action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,

  • What Is Influence?

  • Five Kinds of Influence

  • Influencers in John’s Morning

  • Children with Influence

  • The Halo Effect

  • Group Ignorance

  • Glossary


Lawrence sherman
Lawrence Sherman action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,

  • Cooperative Learning

  • Humor and Children’s Gleeful Behavior

  • Classroom management and behavior settings


Lawrence W. Sherman action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,,

Oxford, Ohio, Miami University

December, 2003

Student of Jacob S. Kounin, 1966-1971, Wayne State University

School environments as behavior settings

Group Glee (Children’s Humor)

Locus of Control

Cooperative Learning (Treasurer, IASCE)

Computer Supported Intentional Learning Experiences (CSILE)


Wayne state university detroit michigan 1965 1971 major influences
Wayne State University, action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,Detroit, Michigan1965 - 1971Major Influences:

  • Jacob S. Kounin, Ph. D. Dissertation Advisor

  • William Wattenberg, Dissertation Committee

  • Fritz Redl, Dissertation Committee

  • A. F. Citron, Graduate course work.

    • Both Redl and Citron were associated with the Commission on Community Interrelations (C.C.I)


Jacob Kounin Professor Emeritus, Wayne State University, action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,

Detroit, Michigan, 1970

Experimental Studies of

Rigidity and co-satiation

Exploratory Ecological Research

Classroom management and

Discipline.

Signal systems and Behavior

Settings.

Many collaborations with

Paul Gump.


Kounin s issues in classroom management
Kounin’s Issues in Classroom Management action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,

  • The “Ripple Effect”

  • Withitness

  • Transitions

  • Overlapping

  • Group Focus

  • Variety

    • Satiation and co-satiation connections

  • Signal Systems and Behavior Settings


Roger Barker, action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,

1963,

Kurt Lewin Memorial Award

With Dembo and Lewin:

Frustration Regression

With Jacob Kounin:

Child Behavior and Development

Stream of Behavior

Behavior Settings

With Paul Gump:

Big School Small School


Paul Gump with Edna Friedman, WSU, action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,

Detroit, Michigan, 1970


Some useful general references
Some Useful General References action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,

  • Brody C.(Chair), Baloche, L., Schmuck, R., Sherman, L., and Sharan, Y. (2004). The Past and Future of Cooperative Learning: Perspectives from Leaders in the IASCE. Panel Session at IASCE Conference (draft version), Singapore, June ‏2004http://www.users.muohio.edu/shermalw/iasce's history.doc

  • Morton Hunt (1993). The Story of Psychology. New York: Doubleday.

  • Alfred F. Marrow (1969). The Practical Theorist: The Life and Work of Kurt Lewin. New York: Basic Books.

  • The Journal of Social Issues and The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI), especially the list of Lewin Memorial Award Winners.

  • Monitor on Psychology.American Psychological Association, Vol. 35, No. 8, pp. 56-72. (Desegregation to Diversity? Psychology takes a look at a half century of response to America’s watershed decision of Brown v. Board of Education). Special emphasis is made on “… Clark’s work and how it was grounded in Kurt Lewin’s “social action research” - work in the community rather than only in a lab. Like Lewin, Clark believed that research could spur social activism and empower community members to change society for the better…” p. 60.

  • Philogene, G. (editor), (2004). Racial identity in context: The Legacy of Kenneth B. Clark. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.


Richard schmuck references
Richard Schmuck References action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,

  • Richard A. Schmuck (1997). Practical action research for change. Arlington Heights, IL : IRI/Skylight Training and Publishing.

  • Richard Schmuck (editor) (2000). Practical action research : a collection of articles. Arlington Heights, IL : Skylight Training and Publishing.

  • Richard and Patricia Schmuck (2001, 8th edition)). Group Processes in the Classroom. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.


Jacob kounin references
Jacob Kounin References action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,

  • Roger Barker, Jacob Kounin & Ralph. White (1943). Child Behavior and Development. New York: McGraw Hill.

  • Jacob S. Kounin (1970). Discipline and Group Management in Classrooms. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

  • Kounin, J. S., and Sherman, L. W. (1979). School environments as behavior settings. Theory Into Practice, 18(3), 145-151.


Lawrence sherman references
Lawrence Sherman References action research. She is expected to choose a problem in her own classroom or school. She focuses on her school because as a faculty advisor she sees a problem with the student council. She notes that over the last three years fewer students have been volunteering to serve on the council and that more students who do volunteer have been dropping out after only a couple of meetings. She decides to study all students’ perceptions and attitudes about student council with a questionnaire. She gets help with the questionnaire from teachers in the network. She collects and analyzes data; distributes the results to students,

  • Sherman, L. W. (2001). Cooperative Learning and Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Experiences. In (Chris Wolfe, editor), Learning and Teaching on the World Wide Web. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 113-130. http://www.users.muohio.edu/shermalw/wolf_chapter-draft3-25.htm

  • Sherman, L. W. (2000). Postmodern Constructivist Pedagogy for Teaching and Learning Cooperatively on the Web. CyberPsychology and Behavior: Special Issue. (Volume 3, No 1, 2000).

  • Sherman, L. W. (1993). Organizer of the 11th [ 4th (ISHS) ] International Conference on Humor and Laughter (October, 1993). Miami University's John E. Dolibois Campus, Grand-Duche de Luxembourg, Europe.

  • Sherman, L. W. & Woy-Hazelton, S. (1988). The student team project: A long-term cooperative strategy in graduate environmental studies. Paper presentation to the Fourth Convention of the International Association for the Study of Cooperation in Education. Kibbutz Shefayim, Israel, July 5-8, 1988. ERIC DOCUMENT, ED 299-872.

  • Sherman, L. W. (1988). Cooperative classroom pedagogies in undergraduate education. Paper presentation to the Fourth Convention of the International Association for the Study of Cooperation in Education. Kibbutz Shefayim, Israel, July 5-8, 1988. ERIC DOCUMENT ED 299-873.

  • Sherman, L. W. (1985). Humor and social distance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 61, 1274.

  • Kounin, J. S., and Sherman, L. W. (1979). School environments as behavior settings. Theory Into Practice, 18(3), 145-151.

  • Sherman, L. W. (1984). Development of children's perceptions of internal control: A cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. Journal of Personality, 52(4), 338-354.

  • Sherman, L. W. (1975). An ecological study of glee in small groups of preschool children. Child Development, 46, 53-61.


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