Medical terminology
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MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY. Using medical terminology. Medical terminology is used in: conversation with other professionals medical charting and documentation professional texts, journal articles. Using medical terminology.

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MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY

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Medical terminology

MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY


Using medical terminology

Using medical terminology

  • Medical terminology is used in:

    • conversation with other professionals

    • medical charting and documentation

    • professional texts, journal articles


Using medical terminology1

Using medical terminology

  • Understanding and using medical terminology correctly is essential to a successful midwifery career

  • Why is this essential?

80 slides total


Medical terminology1

Medical terminology

  • Each health care specialty has its own terminology and abbreviations

  • Health care professionals become so used to the language of their specialty they forget others don’t understand these terms

80 slides total


When not to use medical terminology

When not to use medical terminology

  • Medical conditions, diagnoses, treatments and terms should always be explained in lay person’s language when talking to patients, family and community members

  • Be aware of the client’s literacy level and language of origin

80 slides total


Building blocks of medical language

Building blocks of medical language

  • Medical terms are made up of several parts – elements - that can be combined to make many different words

  • Learning the meaning of these elements helps understand many medical terms

80 slides total


Building blocks of medical language1

Building blocks of medical language

3 principle elements make up medical terms:

1.roots and combining forms

2.prefixes

3.suffixes

80 slides total


Each element is essential to understanding the meaning of the medical term

Each element is essential to understanding the meaning of the medical term

Prefix

Root

Combining

Vowel

Suffix

80 slides total


The root

The Root

  • The root is the part of the medical term that gives the main meaning

  • It usually refers to a structure and/or function of the body

  • Roots are usually Latin or Greek in origin

  • All medical terms have at least one root

80 slides total


Combining forms

Combining forms

  • Combining forms consist of roots plus a vowel, usually the letter “o”

  • In the dictionary, the vowel is separated from the root with a slash mark, example:

    • Gastr/o - stomach

    • Enter/o – small intestine

    • Cardi/o - heart

80 slides total


Combining vowel

Combining vowel

  • The letter “o” is called the combining vowel

  • It links the root to the “suffix,” the next element in the medical term

  • Used if the suffix begins with a consonant.

  • Not needed if the suffix begins with a vowel

80 slides total


Roots and combining forms

Roots and combining forms

  • There are thousands of roots and combining forms that make up medical language

  • You need to learn the roots and combining forms used in general medical terminology and what is specific to maternity care

80 slides total


Basic root words

Basic root words

Adip/o fat

Arteri/o artery

Arthr/o joint

Axill armpit

Blephar eyelid

Bucca cheek

Cardi/a heart

Cephal head

Cerebr/o brain

80 slides total


Basic root words1

Basic root words

Cervic neck

Cholecyst gallbladder

Col/o large intestine

Cost/o rib

Crani/o skull

Cyst/o urinary bladder

Cyt/o cell

Derm skin

Enter small intestine

80 slides total


Basic root words2

Basic root words

Esophag esophagus

Gastr/o stomach

Hem/o blood

Hepat/o liver

Ren/o, nephr/o kidneys

Lapar abdominal wall

Laryng/o larynx

Lumbus loin, lower part of the back

80 slides total


Basic root words3

Basic root words

Myel/o spinal cord

My/o, muculo muscle

Nas/o, rhino nose

Neur/o nerve

Ophthalm/o, ocul/o eye

Or/o, stomat/o mouth

Oste/o bone

Ot/o ear

Pancreat/o pancreas

Pharyng/o throat

80 slides total


Basic root words4

Basic root words

Pneum/o,

pneumon/o lung

Splen/o spleen

Thorac/o chest

Thyroid thyroid gland

Trache/o windpipe, trachea

Ven/o, phleb/o vein

Vertebr/o vertebra

Viv/o life

80 slides total


Combining forms1

Combining forms

  • The letter “o” is called the combining vowel

  • It links the root to the “suffix,” the next element in the medical term, if the suffix begins with a consonant.

  • The combining form is always used when linking two roots, even if the second one starts with a vowel.

80 slides total


Suffixes

Suffixes

  • Suffixes are word elements that are attached to the end of roots and combining forms to add to or change their meaning

  • All medical terms have a suffix

80 slides total


Suffixes1

Suffixes

  • Each suffix can be added to many roots

    itis = inflammation

    appendicitis = inflamed appendix

    arthritis = inflamed joint

80 slides total


Suffixes2

Suffixes

  • The combining vowel is used between the root and the suffix when the suffix begins with a consonant:

    Example: cardi + o + megaly = cardiomegaly

    cardiomegaly = enlarged heart

    cardi = heart, megaly = enlarged

80 slides total


Suffixes3

Suffixes

  • When the suffix begins with a vowel, there is no need for a combining vowel between the root and the suffix

  • The suffix is attached to the root word

    Example: gastr + itis = gastritis

    gastritis = inflammation of the stomach

    gastr = stomach,

    itis = inflammation

80 slides total


Suffixes4

Suffixes

Some common meanings of suffixes:

  • Pathological (disease) conditions

  • Diagnostic procedures

  • Surgical procedures

  • Pertaining to

  • Produced by

  • Resembling

80 slides total


Suffixes5

Suffixes

  • When suffixes are listed in medical dictionaries or word lists, they are listed alphabetically

  • The word is preceded by a dash and identified as a word element

  • The dash indicates something precedes it

  • Dictionary entries will give the language of origin, usually Latin or Greek

80 slides total


Common suffixes

Common suffixes

Pertaining to:

-ac, -al, -ar, -ary, -eal, -iac, -ic, -ical, -ose, -ous, -tic

Examples:

Cardiac (pertaining to the heart)

Cellular (pertaining to the cell)

Psychotic (pertaining to psychosis)

Corporeal (pertaining to the body)

80 slides total


Common suffixes1

Common suffixes

-algia pain

-centesis surgical puncture to remove fluid

-cide to kill, destroy

-cyte cell

-ectomy removal of

-emia blood

-gram record

80 slides total


Common suffixes2

Common suffixes

-graph instrument used to record

-graphy process of recording

-ia, - a condition, esp. an abnormal state

-ism condition

-itis inflammation of

-lithiasis presence of or formation of stones

80 slides total


Common suffixes3

Common suffixes

-logy study of

-logistperson who studies it

-megaly enlargement

-oid resembling

-oma tumor

-otomy surgical incision

-pathy disease

-plasty surgical repair

80 slides total


Common suffixes4

Common suffixes

-plegia paralysis

-pnea breathing, respiration

-rrhea drainage, flow

-scope examination, instrument

-scopy examination using a scope

-stasis stoppage

-stomy surgically create an artificial mouth or stoma

80 slides total


Prefixes

Prefixes

  • Prefixes are word elements that are attached to the beginning of roots and combining forms to add to or change their meaning

  • Many (but not all) medical terms have a prefix

80 slides total


Prefixes1

Prefixes

Common meanings of prefixes:Location

Position

Direction

Time

Number

Negation, absence of

Color

80 slides total


Prefixes2

Prefixes

  • The same prefixes can be attached to many root words, resulting in thousands of variations

  • The prefix “hyper” means “abnormally increased or excessive”

    Hyperacid = excessively acidic

    Hyperactive = abnormally active

    Hypertension = persistently high blood pressure

80 slides total


Prefixes3

Prefixes

  • Prefixes can dramatically change the meaning of a word

  • Example: “systole” means “contraction of the heart”

  • The one letter prefix “a” means “without”

  • “Asystole” means “no contractions of the heart” -- Just one letter makes the difference between life and death!

  • Correct spelling is critical in health care

80 slides total


Prefixes4

Prefixes

  • When prefixes are listed in medical dictionaries and word lists, they are located alphabetically followed by a dash and identified as a word element

  • Their origin (Latin, Greek) is usually given

  • Example:

    epi- word element (Gr) meaning over

    poly- word element (Gr) meaning many, much

80 slides total


Common prefixes

Common prefixes

A-/an- without, not

Anti- against

Auto- self

Bi- two, double

Brady- slow

Dys- bad, difficult, painful

Epi- over

80 slides total


Common prefixes1

Common prefixes

Eu- good, normal

Hemi- half

Hyper- above, excessive

Hypo- less than, under

Inter- between

Intra- within

Multi- many

Non- not

Peri- around

80 slides total


Common prefixes2

Common prefixes

Poly- many, much

Post- after, behind

Pre- before, in front

Pseudo- false

Quadri- four

Semi- half

Sub- under, below

Supra- above, over

Tachy- fast, rapid

Tri- three

80 slides total


Putting it all together

Putting it all together

  • Learn the meanings of commonly used word elements and understanding how they combine to make a medical term

  • Then you can figure out the meaning of thousands of medical terms

  • Think of each word as a combination of building blocks or railroad cars, fitted together to create a precise meaning

80 slides total


Putting it all together1

Putting it all together

The medical term is put together like a series of building blocks or train cars

Prefix +

Root +

Combining vowel (if needed) +

Suffix

80 slides total


Putting it all together linking the components to define the term

Putting it all together – linking the components to define the term

Prefix

Root

Combining

Vowel

Suffix

80 slides total


Putting it all together2

Putting it all together

  • When you see a new term, break it down into the elements

  • Start at the end of the word and work to the left

  • Identify and define each element

  • As you define each element you will define the medical term

80 slides total


Start at the end of the word and work to the left

Start at the end of the word and work to the left

Prefix

Root

Combining

Vowel

Suffix

80 slides total


Example echocardiogram

Example: “Echocardiogram”

echo

cardi

o

gram

80 slides total


Define echocardiogram reading from left to right

Define Echocardiogram reading from left to right

Echo =

reflections

of sounds

Cardi =

heart

O =

connecting

vowel

Gram =

Written,

record

80 slides total


Define echocardiogram reading from left to right1

Define Echocardiogram reading from left to right

Echo =

reflections

of sounds

Cardi =

heart

O =

connecting

vowel

Gram =

Written,

record

Echocardiogram is defined as a written recording of the heart using reflections of sounds

80 slides total


Putting it all together3

Putting it all together

Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix

Echocardiogram

  • echo = reflections of sounds

  • cardi = heart

  • o = connecting vowel

  • gram = written, record

    Echocardiogram is a written recording of the heart using reflections of sounds

80 slides total


Example cytology

Example: “Cytology”

No

Prefix

Cyt

o

logy

80 slides total


Putting it all together4

Putting it all together

Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix

Cytology

  • Cyt (root) = cell

  • o = the connecting vowel

  • logy = (suffix) study of

    Cytology means study of the cell

    A cytologist is someone who studies cells

80 slides total


Example bradycardia

Example: “Bradycardia”

Brady

cardi

No

Connec-

ting

vowel

ia

80 slides total


Putting it all together5

Putting it all together

Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix

Bradycardia

  • Brady = abnormally slow

  • no connecting vowel is needed because the prefix ends with a vowel

  • cardi = heart

  • ia, a = condition, esp. an abnormal state

    Bradycardia means a condition of abnormally slow heart

80 slides total


Example splenectomy

Example: “Splenectomy”

No

prefix

splen

No

Connec-

ting

vowel

ectomy

80 slides total


Putting it all together6

Putting it all together

Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix

Splenectomy

  • splen = (root) spleen

  • no connecting vowel is needed because the suffix begins with a vowel

  • ectomy = (suffix) removal of

    Splenectomy means removal of a spleen

80 slides total


Putting it all together7

Putting it all together

Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix

Dyspnea

  • Dys = bad, difficult, painful

  • pnea = breathing, respiration

  • ia, a = condition, esp. an abnormal state

    Dyspnea means an abnormal condition of difficult breathing

80 slides total


Putting it all together8

Putting it all together

Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix

Hemocyte

  • hem = blood

  • o = connecting vowel

  • cyte = cell

    Hemocyte is a blood cell

80 slides total


Changing the meaning of the term

Changing the meaning of the term

Changing one element modifies the meaning of the term

80 slides total


Medical terminology

Bradycardia: a condition of abnormally slow heart

Tachycardia: a condition of abnormally fast heart

brady

cardi

No

Connec-

ting

vowel

a

tachy

80 slides total


Medical terminology

Tachycardia: a condition of abnormally fast heart

Tachypnea: a condition of abnormally fast breathing

cardi

No

Connec-

ting

vowel

a

tachy

pne

80 slides total


Spelling

Spelling

  • Correct spelling is critical in health care.

  • Misspelled words can lead to diagnostic, medication and treatment errors

  • Some words look or sound similar and can be confused

80 slides total


Spelling1

Spelling

  • Pay attention to the context to help you figure out the correct meaning of a term

  • Example: “The client has a fractured ilium”

    ilium = part of the hip bone

    ileum = part of the intestine

80 slides total


Singular and plural

Singular and plural

  • Because many medical terms come from Greek and Latin words, the plural forms of the words are not made by adding an “s” as in English

  • Memorize the guidelines

  • When in doubt, memorize the specific words

80 slides total


Medical terminology

Changing singular to plural

80 slides total


Pronunciation guidelines

Pronunciation guidelines

  • The “soft” pronunciation of the consonant is used when followed by e, i or y

  • “c” sounds like “s”

    cell, circulation, cyst

  • “g” sounds like “j” when followed by e, i or y

    genetic, gingivitis, gestation

  • “ch” sounds like “k”

    chronic, chromium, cholecystitis, psychologist

80 slides total


Pronunciation guidelines1

Pronunciation guidelines

  • When a word ends in “i” it is pronounced like “eye” as in

    bacilli

  • “x” is pronounced “z” as in

    xylocaine

    xenophobic

80 slides total


Pronunciation guidelines2

Pronunciation guidelines

When “P” is at the beginning of words followed by a consonant:

  • “ph” is pronounced “f” as in

    pharmacy

  • “pn” is pronounced “n” (silent “p”) as in pneumonia, pneumococcus

  • “ps” is pronounced “s” (silent “p”) as in psychotic,

    psychosocial

    psychologist

80 slides total


Abbreviations symbols

Abbreviations & symbols

  • Medical abbreviations and symbols are a “short hand” for medical professionals

  • Most have been standardized and are universally accepted

80 slides total


Abbreviations symbols1

Abbreviations & symbols

  • Individual facilities and specialties may use their own specific abbreviations and symbols or use a symbol differently

    Example: Means “change”

  • In maternity care it is also used to mean “trimester”

80 slides total


The context indicates the meaning

The context indicates the meaning

  • Client S.J., 24 yo, 8 weeks gestation, c/o 1st bleeding

  • Client S.J., 24 yo, 8 weeks gestation, c/o constipation. Recommend her PNV Rx @ her next PNV.

80 slides total


Abbreviations symbols2

Abbreviations & symbols

  • Don’t assume you know what an abbreviation or symbol means.

  • Learn the abbreviations and symbols used on your clinical site during orientation to the practice, through chart review, and by asking.

80 slides total


Abbreviations symbols3

Abbreviations & symbols

  • Don’t use your own personal abbreviations in health care documents.

  • Use only standard medically accepted abbreviations and those used by the facility on your clinical site

  • Use capital and small letters appropriately

  • Non-standard abbreviations can result in medical errors and fines for the agency when discovered during chart audits

80 slides total


Common abbreviations symbols

Common abbreviations & symbols

ābefore

ad libfreely; at will

a.c. before a meal

b.i.d.twice a day

BMbowel movement

BPblood pressure

cwith

CDCCenters for Disease Control

80 slides total


Medical abbreviations symbols

Medical abbreviations & symbols

c/o complains of

d/cdiscontinue

h. hour

H2Owater

h.s.At night, at bedtime

I&Ointake and output

lab.Laboratory

n.p.o.Nothing by mouth

n&vnausea and vomiting

80 slides total


Medical abbreviations symbols1

Medical abbreviations & symbols

O2oxygen

O.D.Right eye

O.S.Left eye

O.U.Each eye

pafter

Ppulse

p.c.After meals

P.O.By mouth

80 slides total


Medical abbreviations symbols2

Medical abbreviations & symbols

p.r.n.As needed

q.d.Daily, once a day

q.h.Every hour

q.i.d.Four times a day

Rrespiration

RRrespiration rate

swithout

stat.immediately

80 slides total


Medical abbreviations symbols3

Medical abbreviations & symbols

Ttemperature

t.i.d.Three times a day

TPRtemperature, pulse and respiration

TxTreatment; traction

VSvital signs

Wt.Weight

xmultiplied by

80 slides total


Medical symbols

Medical symbols

>greater than

<less than

↓ decreased, down, lower

↑ increased, higher, up, elevate

↘decreasing

↗increasing

#pound or number

80 slides total


Medical symbols1

Medical symbols

′foot or minute

″inch or second

odegree

♂male

♀female

∆change, trimester

@at

80 slides total


Medical dictionary

Medical Dictionary

  • Taber’s or Mosby’s available in bookstores, come with textbooks and CDs

  • Medical dictionaries are available online

  • Add medical terms to your computer’s spell check program

80 slides total


Choosing a medical dictionary

Choosing a medical dictionary

  • Explanations of medical procedures, conditions, disorders and diseases

  • Clear, easy to understand definitions

  • Pronunciation guidelines

  • Abbreviations and symbols

  • Useful diagrams, charts, reference tables containing information like lab values, conversion tables (metric to standard), etc

  • Vocabulary useful to your chosen field

80 slides total


Learn medical terminology

Learn medical terminology

  • Study and learn a few words every day

  • Make flash cards

  • Practice using terms verbally

  • Use symbols and abbreviations when you write notes

  • Use a medical dictionary for reference

  • Ask for a definition when you hear a term or see an abbreviation that you don’t know

80 slides total


1120 legal and ethical aspects of midwifery

1120 LEGAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS OF MIDWIFERY

MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY

THE END

80 slides total


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