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MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY. Using medical terminology. Medical terminology is used in: conversation with other professionals medical charting and documentation professional texts, journal articles. Using medical terminology.

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using medical terminology
Using medical terminology
  • Medical terminology is used in:
    • conversation with other professionals
    • medical charting and documentation
    • professional texts, journal articles
using medical terminology1
Using medical terminology
  • Understanding and using medical terminology correctly is essential to a successful midwifery career
  • Why is this essential?

80 slides total

medical terminology1
Medical terminology
  • Each health care specialty has its own terminology and abbreviations
  • Health care professionals become so used to the language of their specialty they forget others don’t understand these terms

80 slides total

when not to use medical terminology
When not to use medical terminology
  • Medical conditions, diagnoses, treatments and terms should always be explained in lay person’s language when talking to patients, family and community members
  • Be aware of the client’s literacy level and language of origin

80 slides total

building blocks of medical language
Building blocks of medical language
  • Medical terms are made up of several parts – elements - that can be combined to make many different words
  • Learning the meaning of these elements helps understand many medical terms

80 slides total

building blocks of medical language1
Building blocks of medical language

3 principle elements make up medical terms:

1. roots and combining forms

2. prefixes

3. suffixes

80 slides total

each element is essential to understanding the meaning of the medical term
Each element is essential to understanding the meaning of the medical term

Prefix

Root

Combining

Vowel

Suffix

80 slides total

the root
The Root
  • The root is the part of the medical term that gives the main meaning
  • It usually refers to a structure and/or function of the body
  • Roots are usually Latin or Greek in origin
  • All medical terms have at least one root

80 slides total

combining forms
Combining forms
  • Combining forms consist of roots plus a vowel, usually the letter “o”
  • In the dictionary, the vowel is separated from the root with a slash mark, example:
      • Gastr/o - stomach
      • Enter/o – small intestine
      • Cardi/o - heart

80 slides total

combining vowel
Combining vowel
  • The letter “o” is called the combining vowel
  • It links the root to the “suffix,” the next element in the medical term
  • Used if the suffix begins with a consonant.
  • Not needed if the suffix begins with a vowel

80 slides total

roots and combining forms
Roots and combining forms
  • There are thousands of roots and combining forms that make up medical language
  • You need to learn the roots and combining forms used in general medical terminology and what is specific to maternity care

80 slides total

basic root words
Basic root words

Adip/o fat

Arteri/o artery

Arthr/o joint

Axill armpit

Blephar eyelid

Bucca cheek

Cardi/a heart

Cephal head

Cerebr/o brain

80 slides total

basic root words1
Basic root words

Cervic neck

Cholecyst gallbladder

Col/o large intestine

Cost/o rib

Crani/o skull

Cyst/o urinary bladder

Cyt/o cell

Derm skin

Enter small intestine

80 slides total

basic root words2
Basic root words

Esophag esophagus

Gastr/o stomach

Hem/o blood

Hepat/o liver

Ren/o, nephr/o kidneys

Lapar abdominal wall

Laryng/o larynx

Lumbus loin, lower part of the back

80 slides total

basic root words3
Basic root words

Myel/o spinal cord

My/o, muculo muscle

Nas/o, rhino nose

Neur/o nerve

Ophthalm/o, ocul/o eye

Or/o, stomat/o mouth

Oste/o bone

Ot/o ear

Pancreat/o pancreas

Pharyng/o throat

80 slides total

basic root words4
Basic root words

Pneum/o,

pneumon/o lung

Splen/o spleen

Thorac/o chest

Thyroid thyroid gland

Trache/o windpipe, trachea

Ven/o, phleb/o vein

Vertebr/o vertebra

Viv/o life

80 slides total

combining forms1
Combining forms
  • The letter “o” is called the combining vowel
  • It links the root to the “suffix,” the next element in the medical term, if the suffix begins with a consonant.
  • The combining form is always used when linking two roots, even if the second one starts with a vowel.

80 slides total

suffixes
Suffixes
  • Suffixes are word elements that are attached to the end of roots and combining forms to add to or change their meaning
  • All medical terms have a suffix

80 slides total

suffixes1
Suffixes
  • Each suffix can be added to many roots

itis = inflammation

appendicitis = inflamed appendix

arthritis = inflamed joint

80 slides total

suffixes2
Suffixes
  • The combining vowel is used between the root and the suffix when the suffix begins with a consonant:

Example: cardi + o + megaly = cardiomegaly

cardiomegaly = enlarged heart

cardi = heart, megaly = enlarged

80 slides total

suffixes3
Suffixes
  • When the suffix begins with a vowel, there is no need for a combining vowel between the root and the suffix
  • The suffix is attached to the root word

Example: gastr + itis = gastritis

gastritis = inflammation of the stomach

gastr = stomach,

itis = inflammation

80 slides total

suffixes4
Suffixes

Some common meanings of suffixes:

  • Pathological (disease) conditions
  • Diagnostic procedures
  • Surgical procedures
  • Pertaining to
  • Produced by
  • Resembling

80 slides total

suffixes5
Suffixes
  • When suffixes are listed in medical dictionaries or word lists, they are listed alphabetically
  • The word is preceded by a dash and identified as a word element
  • The dash indicates something precedes it
  • Dictionary entries will give the language of origin, usually Latin or Greek

80 slides total

common suffixes
Common suffixes

Pertaining to:

-ac, -al, -ar, -ary, -eal, -iac, -ic, -ical, -ose, -ous, -tic

Examples:

Cardiac (pertaining to the heart)

Cellular (pertaining to the cell)

Psychotic (pertaining to psychosis)

Corporeal (pertaining to the body)

80 slides total

common suffixes1
Common suffixes

-algia pain

-centesis surgical puncture to remove fluid

-cide to kill, destroy

-cyte cell

-ectomy removal of

-emia blood

-gram record

80 slides total

common suffixes2
Common suffixes

-graph instrument used to record

-graphy process of recording

-ia, - a condition, esp. an abnormal state

-ism condition

-itis inflammation of

-lithiasis presence of or formation of stones

80 slides total

common suffixes3
Common suffixes

-logy study of

-logist person who studies it

-megaly enlargement

-oid resembling

-oma tumor

-otomy surgical incision

-pathy disease

-plasty surgical repair

80 slides total

common suffixes4
Common suffixes

-plegia paralysis

-pnea breathing, respiration

-rrhea drainage, flow

-scope examination, instrument

-scopy examination using a scope

-stasis stoppage

-stomy surgically create an artificial mouth or stoma

80 slides total

prefixes
Prefixes
  • Prefixes are word elements that are attached to the beginning of roots and combining forms to add to or change their meaning
  • Many (but not all) medical terms have a prefix

80 slides total

prefixes1
Prefixes

Common meanings of prefixes: Location

Position

Direction

Time

Number

Negation, absence of

Color

80 slides total

prefixes2
Prefixes
  • The same prefixes can be attached to many root words, resulting in thousands of variations
  • The prefix “hyper” means “abnormally increased or excessive”

Hyperacid = excessively acidic

Hyperactive = abnormally active

Hypertension = persistently high blood pressure

80 slides total

prefixes3
Prefixes
  • Prefixes can dramatically change the meaning of a word
  • Example: “systole” means “contraction of the heart”
  • The one letter prefix “a” means “without”
  • “Asystole” means “no contractions of the heart” -- Just one letter makes the difference between life and death!
  • Correct spelling is critical in health care

80 slides total

prefixes4
Prefixes
  • When prefixes are listed in medical dictionaries and word lists, they are located alphabetically followed by a dash and identified as a word element
  • Their origin (Latin, Greek) is usually given
  • Example:

epi- word element (Gr) meaning over

poly- word element (Gr) meaning many, much

80 slides total

common prefixes
Common prefixes

A-/an- without, not

Anti- against

Auto- self

Bi- two, double

Brady- slow

Dys- bad, difficult, painful

Epi- over

80 slides total

common prefixes1
Common prefixes

Eu- good, normal

Hemi- half

Hyper- above, excessive

Hypo- less than, under

Inter- between

Intra- within

Multi- many

Non- not

Peri- around

80 slides total

common prefixes2
Common prefixes

Poly- many, much

Post- after, behind

Pre- before, in front

Pseudo- false

Quadri- four

Semi- half

Sub- under, below

Supra- above, over

Tachy- fast, rapid

Tri- three

80 slides total

putting it all together
Putting it all together
  • Learn the meanings of commonly used word elements and understanding how they combine to make a medical term
  • Then you can figure out the meaning of thousands of medical terms
  • Think of each word as a combination of building blocks or railroad cars, fitted together to create a precise meaning

80 slides total

putting it all together1
Putting it all together

The medical term is put together like a series of building blocks or train cars

Prefix +

Root +

Combining vowel (if needed) +

Suffix

80 slides total

putting it all together linking the components to define the term
Putting it all together – linking the components to define the term

Prefix

Root

Combining

Vowel

Suffix

80 slides total

putting it all together2
Putting it all together
  • When you see a new term, break it down into the elements
  • Start at the end of the word and work to the left
  • Identify and define each element
  • As you define each element you will define the medical term

80 slides total

start at the end of the word and work to the left
Start at the end of the word and work to the left

Prefix

Root

Combining

Vowel

Suffix

80 slides total

example echocardiogram
Example: “Echocardiogram”

echo

cardi

o

gram

80 slides total

define echocardiogram reading from left to right
Define Echocardiogram reading from left to right

Echo =

reflections

of sounds

Cardi =

heart

O =

connecting

vowel

Gram =

Written,

record

80 slides total

define echocardiogram reading from left to right1
Define Echocardiogram reading from left to right

Echo =

reflections

of sounds

Cardi =

heart

O =

connecting

vowel

Gram =

Written,

record

Echocardiogram is defined as a written recording of the heart using reflections of sounds

80 slides total

putting it all together3
Putting it all together

Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix

Echocardiogram

  • echo = reflections of sounds
  • cardi = heart
  • o = connecting vowel
  • gram = written, record

Echocardiogram is a written recording of the heart using reflections of sounds

80 slides total

example cytology
Example: “Cytology”

No

Prefix

Cyt

o

logy

80 slides total

putting it all together4
Putting it all together

Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix

Cytology

  • Cyt (root) = cell
  • o = the connecting vowel
  • logy = (suffix) study of

Cytology means study of the cell

A cytologist is someone who studies cells

80 slides total

example bradycardia
Example: “Bradycardia”

Brady

cardi

No

Connec-

ting

vowel

ia

80 slides total

putting it all together5
Putting it all together

Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix

Bradycardia

  • Brady = abnormally slow
  • no connecting vowel is needed because the prefix ends with a vowel
  • cardi = heart
  • ia, a = condition, esp. an abnormal state

Bradycardia means a condition of abnormally slow heart

80 slides total

example splenectomy
Example: “Splenectomy”

No

prefix

splen

No

Connec-

ting

vowel

ectomy

80 slides total

putting it all together6
Putting it all together

Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix

Splenectomy

  • splen = (root) spleen
  • no connecting vowel is needed because the suffix begins with a vowel
  • ectomy = (suffix) removal of

Splenectomy means removal of a spleen

80 slides total

putting it all together7
Putting it all together

Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix

Dyspnea

  • Dys = bad, difficult, painful
  • pnea = breathing, respiration
  • ia, a = condition, esp. an abnormal state

Dyspnea means an abnormal condition of difficult breathing

80 slides total

putting it all together8
Putting it all together

Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix

Hemocyte

  • hem = blood
  • o = connecting vowel
  • cyte = cell

Hemocyte is a blood cell

80 slides total

changing the meaning of the term
Changing the meaning of the term

Changing one element modifies the meaning of the term

80 slides total

slide56

Bradycardia: a condition of abnormally slow heart

Tachycardia: a condition of abnormally fast heart

brady

cardi

No

Connec-

ting

vowel

a

tachy

80 slides total

slide57

Tachycardia: a condition of abnormally fast heart

Tachypnea: a condition of abnormally fast breathing

cardi

No

Connec-

ting

vowel

a

tachy

pne

80 slides total

spelling
Spelling
  • Correct spelling is critical in health care.
  • Misspelled words can lead to diagnostic, medication and treatment errors
  • Some words look or sound similar and can be confused

80 slides total

spelling1
Spelling
  • Pay attention to the context to help you figure out the correct meaning of a term
  • Example: “The client has a fractured ilium”

ilium = part of the hip bone

ileum = part of the intestine

80 slides total

singular and plural
Singular and plural
  • Because many medical terms come from Greek and Latin words, the plural forms of the words are not made by adding an “s” as in English
  • Memorize the guidelines
  • When in doubt, memorize the specific words

80 slides total

pronunciation guidelines
Pronunciation guidelines
  • The “soft” pronunciation of the consonant is used when followed by e, i or y
  • “c” sounds like “s”

cell, circulation, cyst

  • “g” sounds like “j” when followed by e, i or y

genetic, gingivitis, gestation

  • “ch” sounds like “k”

chronic, chromium, cholecystitis, psychologist

80 slides total

pronunciation guidelines1
Pronunciation guidelines
  • When a word ends in “i” it is pronounced like “eye” as in

bacilli

  • “x” is pronounced “z” as in

xylocaine

xenophobic

80 slides total

pronunciation guidelines2
Pronunciation guidelines

When “P” is at the beginning of words followed by a consonant:

  • “ph” is pronounced “f” as in

pharmacy

  • “pn” is pronounced “n” (silent “p”) as in pneumonia, pneumococcus
  • “ps” is pronounced “s” (silent “p”) as in psychotic,

psychosocial

psychologist

80 slides total

abbreviations symbols
Abbreviations & symbols
  • Medical abbreviations and symbols are a “short hand” for medical professionals
  • Most have been standardized and are universally accepted

80 slides total

abbreviations symbols1
Abbreviations & symbols
  • Individual facilities and specialties may use their own specific abbreviations and symbols or use a symbol differently

Example: Means “change”

  • In maternity care it is also used to mean “trimester”

80 slides total

the context indicates the meaning
The context indicates the meaning
  • Client S.J., 24 yo, 8 weeks gestation, c/o 1st bleeding
  • Client S.J., 24 yo, 8 weeks gestation, c/o constipation. Recommend her PNV Rx @ her next PNV.

80 slides total

abbreviations symbols2
Abbreviations & symbols
  • Don’t assume you know what an abbreviation or symbol means.
  • Learn the abbreviations and symbols used on your clinical site during orientation to the practice, through chart review, and by asking.

80 slides total

abbreviations symbols3
Abbreviations & symbols
  • Don’t use your own personal abbreviations in health care documents.
  • Use only standard medically accepted abbreviations and those used by the facility on your clinical site
  • Use capital and small letters appropriately
  • Non-standard abbreviations can result in medical errors and fines for the agency when discovered during chart audits

80 slides total

common abbreviations symbols
Common abbreviations & symbols

ā before

ad lib freely; at will

a.c. before a meal

b.i.d. twice a day

BM bowel movement

BP blood pressure

c with

CDC Centers for Disease Control

80 slides total

medical abbreviations symbols
Medical abbreviations & symbols

c/o complains of

d/c discontinue

h. hour

H2O water

h.s. At night, at bedtime

I&O intake and output

lab. Laboratory

n.p.o. Nothing by mouth

n&v nausea and vomiting

80 slides total

medical abbreviations symbols1
Medical abbreviations & symbols

O2 oxygen

O.D. Right eye

O.S. Left eye

O.U. Each eye

p after

P pulse

p.c. After meals

P.O. By mouth

80 slides total

medical abbreviations symbols2
Medical abbreviations & symbols

p.r.n. As needed

q.d. Daily, once a day

q.h. Every hour

q.i.d. Four times a day

R respiration

RR respiration rate

s without

stat. immediately

80 slides total

medical abbreviations symbols3
Medical abbreviations & symbols

T temperature

t.i.d. Three times a day

TPR temperature, pulse and respiration

Tx Treatment; traction

VS vital signs

Wt. Weight

x multiplied by

80 slides total

medical symbols
Medical symbols

> greater than

< less than

↓ decreased, down, lower

↑ increased, higher, up, elevate

↘ decreasing

↗ increasing

# pound or number

80 slides total

medical symbols1
Medical symbols

′ foot or minute

″ inch or second

o degree

♂male

♀female

∆ change, trimester

@ at

80 slides total

medical dictionary
Medical Dictionary
  • Taber’s or Mosby’s available in bookstores, come with textbooks and CDs
  • Medical dictionaries are available online
  • Add medical terms to your computer’s spell check program

80 slides total

choosing a medical dictionary
Choosing a medical dictionary
  • Explanations of medical procedures, conditions, disorders and diseases
  • Clear, easy to understand definitions
  • Pronunciation guidelines
  • Abbreviations and symbols
  • Useful diagrams, charts, reference tables containing information like lab values, conversion tables (metric to standard), etc
  • Vocabulary useful to your chosen field

80 slides total

learn medical terminology
Learn medical terminology
  • Study and learn a few words every day
  • Make flash cards
  • Practice using terms verbally
  • Use symbols and abbreviations when you write notes
  • Use a medical dictionary for reference
  • Ask for a definition when you hear a term or see an abbreviation that you don’t know

80 slides total

1120 legal and ethical aspects of midwifery

1120 LEGAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS OF MIDWIFERY

MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY

THE END

80 slides total

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