Population growth
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Population Growth. Exponential growth (r selected) Logistic growth (k selected) Fluctuating growth Zero population growth (ZPG)  no net increase or decrease. Click for Helpful Animation. http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/wps/media/objects/3014/3087289/Web_Tutorials/23_A01.swf.

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Population growth
Population Growth

  • Exponential growth (r selected)

  • Logistic growth (k selected)

  • Fluctuating growth

  • Zero population growth (ZPG)

    •  no net increase or decrease

Click for Helpful Animation

http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/wps/media/objects/3014/3087289/Web_Tutorials/23_A01.swf


Biogeochemical cycles

Biogeochemical Cycles

SaloniSaxena, Dabin Kim, Jenny Park


Nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen Cycle

  • Limiting Nutrient - Amount of an element necessary for plant life is in short supply Nitrogen Fixation - Chemical conversion of N2 to more reactive forms, e.g. NH3 (ammonia) or NO3 - (nitrate) Denitrification - Chemical conversion from nitrate (NO3 -) back to N2

  • Carried out by:

  • symbiotic bacteria (eg. Rhizobium spp.) living in association with leguminous ( plants in the pea family), and root-noduled non- leguminous plants (eg. Alnus spp.). 

  • - free-living anaerobic bacteria - blue-green algae (cyanobacteria)


Hydrologic cycle
Hydrologic cycle

Evaporation: when the sun heats up water in rivers or lakes or the ocean and turns it into vapor or steam. The water vapor or steam leaves the river, lake or ocean and goes into the air

Condensation: Water vapor in the air gets cold and changes back into liquid, forming clouds. This is called condensation

Precipitation: occurs when so much water has condensed that the air cannot hold it anymore.  The clouds get heavy and water falls back to the earth in the form of rain, hail, sleet or snow.

Collection: When water falls back to earth as precipitation, it may fall back in the oceans, lakes or rivers or it may end up on land.  When it ends up on land, it will either soak into the earth and become part of the “ground water” that plants and animals use to drink or it may run over the soil and collect in the oceans, lakes or rivers where the cycle starts.


Carbon cycle
Carbon cycle

 Carbon (C) enters the biosphere during photosynthesis: CO2 + H2O ---> C6H12O6 + O2 + H2O Carbon is returned to the biosphere in cellular respiration:       O2 +H2O + C6H12O6 ---> CO2 +H2O + energy


Citations
Citations

  • http://www.colorado.edu/GeolSci/courses/GEOL1070/chap04/chapter4.html

  • https://files.nyu.edu/pet205/public/carbon.html

  • http://www.kidzone.ws/water/


Symbiotic relationships

Symbiotic Relationships

Kristen Vogt, Jen Stern, Joon Seo, Jenna o.


Symbiosis
Symbiosis

  • When individuals of two or more species live in intimate, direct contact with each other.


Symbiotic relationships1
Symbiotic Relationships

  • Mutualism: symbiosis that is beneficial to both organisms involved

    • Ex: Bees and flowers (take nectar & pollinate the flowers)

  • Parasitism: a non-mutual symbiotic relationship in which one organism, the parasite, derives its nourishment form another organism, its host, which is harmed in the process

    • Ex: tapeworms

  • Commensalism: an interaction between species that benefits one of the species but neither harms nor helps the other

    • Ex: Burr-bearing seeds that are dispersed by clinging to the fur of certain birds do not harm or help the birds

  • Competition: an interaction that occurs when individuals of different species compete for a resource that limits their growth and survival

  • Neutralism: the relationship between two species that interact but do not affect each other


Parasitism
Parasitism

  • -/+

  • Relationship where one animal lives off or benefits off another, while negatively impacting its host

  • Internal parasite – live within the host

    • Heartworms, hookworms

  • External parasite – attaches onto the outside of the host

    • Leech, tick


Commensalism
Commensalism

  • Interaction between species that benefits one of the species but neither harms nor helps the other

    • 0/+

  • Example:

    • Burr-bearing seeds that are dispersed by clinging to the feathers of certain birds do not harm or help the birds

    • Seeds or pollen on animal fur; does not harm the animal


Mutualism
Mutualism

  • Mutualism: +/+ symbiosis that is beneficial to both organisms involved

    • Ex: Bees and flowers (take nectar & pollinate the flowers)

    • Ex: Oxpecker and zebra

      • Oxpeckerseat ticks and other parasites that live on their skin and the oxpeckers get food


Competition predator prey relationship
Competition: Predator- Prey Relationship

  • Predator- organism that eats other organisms

  • Prey- organism that is eaten by Predator

  • Competition occurs due to a limited supply of a common resource between organisms.

    • Interference competition- occurs directly between 2 individuals

    • Exploitation competition- occurs indirectly between individuals

    • Apparent competition- occurs indirectly between individuals


Links
Links

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_aqa_pre_2011/foodchains/foodchains1.shtml

  • Audio Narration on Energy flow-http://wps.aw.com/bc_goodenough_boh_3/104/26722/6840962.cw/content/index.html

  • Food Web information- http://www.bigelow.org/edhab/fitting_algae.html

  • Build a Food web game- http://www.bigelow.org/edhab/game.html​


Ecological succession

Ecological Succession

By: Charlie Lee, Jacob Lee, and Edward Yoon


What is ecological succession
What is “Ecological Succession”

  • "Ecological succession”: the change in composition of the species within an ecological community over time.


Primary succession
Primary Succession

  • Primary Succession: the colonization of new sites by communities of organisms.

  • Occurs after a devastating event has wiped out the organisms that lived in an area, or with the creation of a new habitat.

  • Occurs in newly formed volcanic islands formed or glacier moraine.


Primary succession cont
Primary Succession (Cont.)

  • Pioneer species such as lichen, mosses, and fungi settle in the barren lands.

  • Pioneer species break down resources/minerals and create soil for more complex species to grow.


Secondary succession
Secondary Succession

  • Secondary succession is more common than primary succession.

  • It begins in habitats where communities were entirely or partially destroyed by some kind of damaging event or disturbance.

  • Such events can be floods, fire, forest clear-cutting, and insect invasions.

  • The already established community can be reduced or new populations can develop in the environment.



Climax community
Climax Community

  • Succession never really ends.

  • However, an ecosystem can become very stable

  • The climax community represents this stable state at the “end” of succession.

  • This climax community will maintain itself for a very long time

  • Big forces may catalyze change in a climax community

  • http://www.mrphome.net/mrp/succession.swf

  • http://www.psu.edu/dept/nkbiology/naturetrail/succession.htm ​


Human impact on the environment

Human Impact on the Environment

By: Reed Murphy, Ken Klopf, Matt Guido

Period 1-2 AP Biology


Problems caused by humans
Problems Caused by Humans

  • Global Warming

  • Depletion of Ozone Layer

  • Acid Rain

  • Deforestation and Desertification

  • Algal Blooms

  • Eutrophication

  • Reduction in Species Diversity



Helpful links
Helpful Links

  • http://coseenow.net/blog/2008/11/eutrophication-animation/

  • http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/ozone-depletion-overview/

  • http://www.epa.gov/acidrain/reducing/

  • http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/en/campaigns/forests/solutions-to-deforestation/​


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