Constipation
Download
1 / 20

Constipation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 193 Views
  • Uploaded on

Constipation . Prepared by : Safaa raed Baraa maher. Definition . Constipation is defined as a decrease in the frequency of fecal elimination and is characterized by the passage of hard, dry , and sometimes painful stools .

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Constipation ' - amora


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Constipation

Constipation

Prepared by : Safaaraed

Baraamaher


Definition
Definition

  • Constipation is defined as a decrease in the frequency of fecal elimination and is characterized by the passage of hard, dry , and sometimes painful stools .

  • Patients may experience abdominal bloating , headaches , low back pain .


Epidemiology

  • age > 65 years

  • Women suffer from constipation more than men .


Causes
Causes

  • Diet (a) insufficient dietary fiber.

    (b) inadequate fluid intake.

  • Lack of exercise .

  • Medication e.g ( anticholinergics )

  • Pregnancy


Pharmacist should question the patient about the following
Pharmacist should question the patient about the following

  • Normal stool frequency .

  • Duration of the constipation .

  • Frequency of constipation episodes.

  • Exercise routine.

  • Amount of dietry fiber consumed and fluid intake.

  • Presence of other symptoms

  • Current medication

  • Medications used to relive constipation and their effectiveness.


Treatment
Treatment

  • Non pharmacological :

  • Increase intake of fluids .

  • Increase exercise to increase and maintain bowel tone .

  • Bowel training to increase regularity.


Pharmacological
Pharmacological :

  • Bulk forming laxatives natural or synthetic polysaccharide derivatives that adsorb water to soften the stool and increase bulk which stimulates peristalsis . It acts in both the small and the large intestines.

  • Natural pysllium , Malt soup extract.

  • Synthetic methylcellulose,polycarbophil.


  • Adverse effects : abdominal cramping,

    flatulence .

  • Administration guidelines :

  • Should not be used if patients have an obstructing bowel lesion .

  • Some bulk forming medications may contain sugar , so patients with diabtes should use sugar free products.

  • Should not use for more than 1 week to treat constipation .


  • saline and osmotic laxatives work by creating an osmotic gradient to pull water into the small and large intestines . This increased volume results in distention of the intestinal lumen , causing increased peristalsis and bowel motility.

  • Saline laxatives sodium and magnesium salts .

  • Osmotic laxatives glycerin, lactulose, sorbitol, polyethlene glycol.


  • Adverse effects an osmotic gradient to pull water into the small and large intestines . This increased volume results in distention of the intestinal lumen , causing increased peristalsis and bowel motility. : diarrhea , abdominal pain .

  • Administration guidelines :

  • Patient should consume 8 oz. of water to prevent possible dehydration .

  • Patient with HTN or CHF should not receive saline laxatives owing to fluid retention from sodium absorption .

  • Patients with sever kidney disease should not use products containing magnesium .


  • Stimulant laxatives work in the small intestines to stimulate bowel motility and increase the secretion of fluids into the bowel.

  • Includes :

  • Anthraquinone laxatives senna .

  • Diphenylmethane derivative Bisacodyl .

  • Castor oil .

  • Adverse effects : abdominal cramping , fluid and electrolyte deficienes.


Administration guidelines intestines to stimulate bowel motility and increase the secretion of fluids into the bowel.

  • Patients with signs of intestinal obstruction should not use stimulant laxatives.

  • Possible carcinogenicity of stimulant laxatives.

  • Chronic use lead to cathartic colon , which results in a poorly functioning colon and resembles the symptoms of ulcerative colitis .


  • Emollient laxatives intestines to stimulate bowel motility and increase the secretion of fluids into the bowel. act as surfactant by allowing absorption of water into the stool which makes the softened stool easier to pass.

  • Adverse effects : diarrhea .


  • Lubricant laxative intestines to stimulate bowel motility and increase the secretion of fluids into the bowel.increase water retention in the stool to soften the stool .

  • Adverse effect : perianal discomfort .

  • Administration guidelines :

  • Should be taken on empty stomach .

  • Should not be given to children < 6 years.

  • Should not be given to patients with rectal bleeding or appendicitis.


Special patient issues
Special patient issues intestines to stimulate bowel motility and increase the secretion of fluids into the bowel.

  • Pediatric patients during the first weeks of life,infants pass approximately 4 stools /day.

  • As get older, approximately 1-3 stools are passed per day .

  • Treatment : increasing the amount of fluid or sugar in a child's formula , glycerin suppositories and magnesium laxatives, enemas should not be used in children <2 years .


  • Pregnant patients intestines to stimulate bowel motility and increase the secretion of fluids into the bowel.constipation is common and is often the result of compression of the colon by the enlarged uterus.

  • Pregnant patients should use bulk forming agents or stool softeners .

  • Geriatric patients at risk for constipation because of insufficient fiber and fluid intake , failure to establish a regular bowel time habit and abuse of stimulant laxatives .


  • Glycerin suppositories or orally administered intestines to stimulate bowel motility and increase the secretion of fluids into the bowel.lactulose may be useful for initial treatment of constipation and bulk forming agents used to prevent constipation .


Some medications in the market
Some medications in the market intestines to stimulate bowel motility and increase the secretion of fluids into the bowel.


ad