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A Closer Look at the Last Thought Moment. The Last Thought Moment – Important or not?. The Last Thought Moment – Important or not?. The Abhidhamma.

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A Closer Look at the

Last Thought Moment


The Last Thought Moment –

Important or not?


The Last Thought Moment –

Important or not?


The Abhidhamma

The Pali Canon, or the Tipitaka, consists of the collection of the three Pitakas : the Sutta Pitaka, the Vinaya Pitaka and the Abhidhamma Pitaka.

Although traditionally attributed to the Buddha, the Abhidhamma Pitaka is generally accepted to be the work of later scholar monks who re-organized and tabulated His teachings into this set of 7 books.


The Abhidhamma

The Pali Canon, or the Tipitaka, consists of the collection of the three Pitakas : the Sutta Pitaka, the Vinaya Pitaka and the Abhidhamma Pitaka.

Although traditionally attributed to the Buddha, the Abhidhamma Pitaka is generally accepted to be the work of later scholar monks who re-organized and tabulated His teachings into this set of 7 books.


The Abhidhamma

Scholars generally date the Abhidhamma to about 100 to 200 years after the death of the Buddha.

Also, there is no mention of the Abhidhamma in the First Council and the early schools all had different versions.

Therefore, the Abhidhamma is likely not to represent the words of the Buddha directly, but those of his later disciples.


The Abhidhamma

Scholars generally date the Abhidhamma to about 100 to 200 years after the death of the Buddha.

Also, there is no mention of the Abhidhamma in the First Council and the early schools all had different versions.

Therefore, the Abhidhamma is likely not to represent the words of the Buddha directly, but those of his later disciples.


The Abhidhamma

Scholars generally date the Abhidhamma to about 100 to 200 years after the death of the Buddha.

Also, there is no mention of the Abhidhamma in the First Council and the early schools all had different versions.

Therefore, the Abhidhamma is likely not to represent the words of the Buddha directly, but those of his later disciples.


The Abhidhamma

Nonetheless, it is a complex and fascinating set of texts which present the teachings in terms of “Ultimate Realities” as opposed to “Conventional Realities”.

Consciousness is defined. Thoughts and mental states are analyzed and classified from an ethical standpoint. Mind and matter are discussed, with the aim of realizing Nibbana.


The Abhidhamma

Nonetheless, it is a complex and fascinating set of texts which present the teachings in terms of “Ultimate Realities” as opposed to “Conventional Realities”.

Consciousness is defined. Thoughts and mental states are analyzed and classified from an ethical standpoint. Mind and matter are discussed, with the aim of realizing Nibbana.


The Abhidhamma

The 7 books of the Abhidhamma are massive works with the last book, Patthana, itself comprising more than 6,000 pages and is by far the single longest book in the Tipitaka.

This book describes the 24 Paccayas, or Laws of Conditionality, through which everything, mind and matter, interact.


The Abhidhamma

The 7 books of the Abhidhamma are massive works with the last book, Patthana, itself comprising more than 6,000 pages and is by far the single longest book in the Tipitaka.

This book describes the 24 Paccayas, or Laws of Conditionality, through which everything, mind and matter, interact.


The Abhidhamma

Patthana explains that all phenomena arise in dependence on other phenomena, such that :

No single cause can produce an effect.

A cause does not produce only a single effect.

Therefore, it is a collection of causes which produces a collection of effects.


The Abhidhamma

Patthana explains that all phenomena arise in dependence on other phenomena, such that :

No single cause can produce an effect.

A cause does not produce only a single effect.

Therefore, it is a collection of causes which produces a collection of effects.


The Abhidhamma

Patthana explains that all phenomena arise in dependence on other phenomena, such that :

No single cause can produce an effect.

A cause does not produce only a single effect.

Therefore, it is a collection of causes which produces a collection of effects.


The Abhidhamma

Patthana explains that all phenomena arise in dependence on other phenomena, such that :

No single cause can produce an effect.

A cause does not produce only a single effect.

Therefore, it is a collection of causes which produces a collection of effects.


The Abhidhamma

As early as the 5th century and continuing well through the 12th, short manuals or compendia of the Abhidhamma appeared, due to its massiveness and complexity.

In Burma these are called "little-finger manuals," of which there are 9. The most important by far is the Abhidhammattha Sangaha or "The Compendium of Things contained in the Abhidhamma."


The Abhidhamma

As early as the 5th century and continuing well through the 12th, short manuals or compendia of the Abhidhamma appeared, due to its massiveness and complexity.

In Burma these are called "little-finger manuals," of which there are 9. The most important by far is the Abhidhammattha Sangaha or "The Compendium of Things contained in the Abhidhamma."


The Abhidhamma

Originally written in the 11th or 12th century, the Sangaha has served as the key to wisdom held in the Abhidhamma, and comprises of only around 50 pages.

It is ascribed to Acariya Anuruddha, about whom so little is known that even his country of origin and the exact century in which he lived remain in question.


The Abhidhamma

Originally written in the 11th or 12th century, the Sangaha has served as the key to wisdom held in the Abhidhamma, and comprises of only around 50 pages.

It is ascribed to Acariya Anuruddha, about whom so little is known that even his country of origin and the exact century in which he lived remain in question.


The Abhidhamma

Consciousness / Cittas

Mental Factors / Cetasikas

Form / Rupa

The Thought Process

The Last Thought Moment


The Abhidhamma

Consciousness / Cittas

Mental Factors / Cetasikas

Form / Rupa

The Thought Process

The Last Thought Moment


The Abhidhamma

Consciousness / Cittas

Mental Factors / Cetasikas

Form / Rupa

The Thought Process

The Last Thought Moment


The Abhidhamma

Consciousness / Cittas

Mental Factors / Cetasikas

Form / Rupa

The Thought Process

The Last Thought Moment


The Abhidhamma

Consciousness / Cittas

Mental Factors / Cetasikas

Form / Rupa

The Thought Process

The Last Thought Moment


31 Planes of Existence


31 Planes of Existence


31 Planes of Existence


31 Planes of Existence


31 Planes of Existence


31 Planes of Existence


31 Planes of Existence


31 Planes of Existence

Literal view :

These are actual places of existence.

Psychological view :

These are states of mind.

Composite view :

These are states of mind pertaining to the 31 Planes, leading eventually to rebirth in one of these 31 Planes.


31 Planes of Existence

Literal view :

These are actual places of existence.

Psychological view :

These are states of mind.

Composite view :

These are states of mind pertaining to the 31 Planes, leading eventually to rebirth in one of these 31 Planes.


31 Planes of Existence

Literal view :

These are actual places of existence.

Psychological view :

These are states of mind.

Composite view :

These are states of mind pertaining to the 31 Planes, leading eventually to rebirth in one of these 31 Planes.


31 Planes of Existence

Literal view :

These are actual places of existence.

Psychological view :

These are states of mind.

Composite view :

These are states of mind pertaining to the 31 Planes, leading eventually to rebirth in one of these 31 Planes.


31 Planes of Existence

Literal view :

These are actual places of existence.

Psychological view :

These are states of mind.

Composite view :

These are states of mind pertaining to the 31 Planes, leading eventually to rebirth in one of these 31 Planes.


31 Planes of Existence

Literal view :

These are actual places of existence.

Psychological view :

These are states of mind.

Composite view :

These are states of mind pertaining to the 31 Planes, leading eventually to rebirth in one of these 31 Planes.


Consciousness / Cittas - Roots


Consciousness / Cittas - Roots


Consciousness / Cittas - Roots


Consciousness / Cittas - Roots


Consciousness / Cittas - Roots


Consciousness / Cittas - Roots


Consciousness / Cittas - Roots


Consciousness / Cittas - Roots


Consciousness / Cittas - Roots


Consciousness / Cittas - Types

Intention (Kamma)

Resultant (Vipaka)

Functional (Kriya)


Consciousness / Cittas - Types

Intention (Kamma)

Resultant (Vipaka)

Functional (Kriya)


Consciousness / Cittas - Types

Intention (Kamma)

Resultant (Vipaka)

Functional (Kriya)


Consciousness / Cittas - Types

Intention (Kamma)

Resultant (Vipaka)

Functional (Kriya)


31 Planes of Existence


Consciousness or Cittas (89)

CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE

Sensual Planes

Form Planes

Formless Planes

Supramundane

Wholesome

Resultant

Functional

Path

Fruit

Wholesome

Resultant

Functional

Wholesome

Unwholesome

Rootless functional


Consciousness or Cittas (89)

CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE

Sensual Planes

Form Planes

Formless Planes

Supramundane

Wholesome

Resultant

Functional

Path

Fruit

Wholesome

Resultant

Functional

Wholesome

Unwholesome

Rootless functional


Consciousness or Cittas (89)

CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE

Sensual Planes

Form Planes

Formless Planes

Supramundane

Wholesome

Resultant

Functional

Path

Fruit

Wholesome

Resultant

Functional

Wholesome

Unwholesome

Rootless functional


Consciousness or Cittas (89)

CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE

Sensual Planes

Form Planes

Formless Planes

Supramundane

Wholesome

Resultant

Functional

Path

Fruit

Wholesome

Resultant

Functional

Wholesome

Unwholesome

Rootless functional


Consciousness or Cittas (89)

CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE

Sensual Planes

Form Planes

Formless Planes

Supramundane

Wholesome

Resultant

Functional

Path

Fruit

Wholesome

Resultant

Functional

Wholesome

Unwholesome

Rootless functional


Consciousness or Cittas (89)

CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE

Sensual Planes

Form Planes

Formless Planes

Supramundane

Wholesome

Resultant

Functional

Path

Fruit

Wholesome

Resultant

Functional

Wholesome

Unwholesome

Rootless functional


Consciousness or Cittas (89)

CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE

Sensual Planes

Form Planes

Formless Planes

Supramundane

Wholesome

Resultant

Functional

Path

Fruit

Wholesome

Resultant

Functional

Wholesome

Unwholesome

Rootless functional


Consciousness or Cittas (89)

CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE

Sensual Planes

Form Planes

Formless Planes

Supramundane

Wholesome

Resultant

Functional

Path

Fruit

Wholesome

Resultant

Functional

Wholesome

Unwholesome

Rootless functional


Consciousness or Cittas (89)

CLASSIFICATION OF CITTAS BY PLANES OF EXISTENCE

Sensual Planes

Form Planes

Formless Planes

Supramundane

Wholesome

Resultant

Functional

Path

Fruit

Wholesome

Resultant

Functional

Wholesome

Unwholesome

Rootless functional


Consciousness / Cittas

Cittas perform 14 different functions :

1. Rebirth linking – Patisandhi citta 2. Life continuum – Bhavanga cittas 3. Adverting 4. Seeing 5. Hearing 6. Smelling 7. Tasting 8. Touching 9. Receiving – Sampaticchana 10. Investigating – Santirana 11. Determining – Votthapana 12. Impulsion – Javana 13. Registering – Tadalambana 14. Death – Cuti citta


Consciousness / Cittas

Cittas perform 14 different functions :

1. Rebirth linking – Patisandhi citta 2. Life continuum – Bhavanga cittas 3. Adverting 4. Seeing 5. Hearing 6. Smelling 7. Tasting 8. Touching 9. Receiving – Sampaticchana 10. Investigating – Santirana 11. Determining – Votthapana 12. Impulsion – Javana 13. Registering – Tadalambana 14. Death – Cuti citta


Consciousness / Cittas

Cittas perform 14 different functions :

1. Rebirth linking – Patisandhi citta 2. Life continuum – Bhavanga cittas 3. Adverting 4. Seeing 5. Hearing 6. Smelling 7. Tasting 8. Touching 9. Receiving – Sampaticchana 10. Investigating – Santirana 11. Determining – Votthapana 12. Impulsion – Javana 13. Registering – Tadalambana 14. Death – Cuti citta


Consciousness / Cittas

Cittas perform 14 different functions :

1. Rebirth linking – Patisandhi citta 2. Life continuum – Bhavanga cittas 3. Adverting 4. Seeing 5. Hearing 6. Smelling 7. Tasting 8. Touching 9. Receiving – Sampaticchana 10. Investigating – Santirana 11. Determining – Votthapana 12. Impulsion – Javana 13. Registering – Tadalambana 14. Death – Cuti citta


Consciousness / Cittas

Cittas perform 14 different functions :

1. Rebirth linking – Patisandhi citta 2. Life continuum – Bhavanga cittas 3. Adverting 4. Seeing 5. Hearing 6. Smelling 7. Tasting 8. Touching 9. Receiving – Sampaticchana 10. Investigating – Santirana 11. Determining – Votthapana 12. Impulsion – Javana 13. Registering – Tadalambana 14. Death – Cuti citta


Consciousness / Cittas

Cittas perform 14 different functions :

1. Rebirth linking – Patisandhi citta 2. Life continuum – Bhavanga cittas 3. Adverting 4. Seeing 5. Hearing 6. Smelling 7. Tasting 8. Touching 9. Receiving – Sampaticchana 10. Investigating – Santirana 11. Determining – Votthapana 12. Impulsion – Javana 13. Registering – Tadalambana 14. Death – Cuti citta


Consciousness / Cittas

Cittas perform 14 different functions :

1. Rebirth linking – Patisandhi citta 2. Life continuum – Bhavanga cittas 3. Adverting 4. Seeing 5. Hearing 6. Smelling 7. Tasting 8. Touching 9. Receiving – Sampaticchana 10. Investigating – Santirana 11. Determining – Votthapana 12. Impulsion – Javana 13. Registering – Tadalambana 14. Death – Cuti citta


Consciousness / Cittas

Cittas perform 14 different functions :

1. Rebirth linking – Patisandhi citta 2. Life continuum – Bhavanga cittas 3. Adverting 4. Seeing 5. Hearing 6. Smelling 7. Tasting 8. Touching 9. Receiving – Sampaticchana 10. Investigating – Santirana 11. Determining – Votthapana 12. Impulsion – Javana 13. Registering – Tadalambana 14. Death – Cuti citta


Consciousness / Cittas

Cittas perform 14 different functions :

1. Rebirth linking – Patisandhi citta 2. Life continuum – Bhavanga cittas 3. Adverting 4. Seeing 5. Hearing 6. Smelling 7. Tasting 8. Touching 9. Receiving – Sampaticchana 10. Investigating – Santirana 11. Determining – Votthapana 12. Impulsion – Javana 13. Registering – Tadalambana 14. Death – Cuti citta


Consciousness / Cittas

Cittas perform 14 different functions :

1. Rebirth linking – Patisandhi citta 2. Life continuum – Bhavanga cittas 3. Adverting 4. Seeing 5. Hearing 6. Smelling 7. Tasting 8. Touching 9. Receiving – Sampaticchana 10. Investigating – Santirana 11. Determining – Votthapana 12. Impulsion – Javana 13. Registering – Tadalambana 14. Death – Cuti citta


Consciousness / Cittas

Cittas perform 14 different functions :

1. Rebirth linking – Patisandhi citta 2. Life continuum – Bhavanga cittas 3. Adverting 4. Seeing 5. Hearing 6. Smelling 7. Tasting 8. Touching 9. Receiving – Sampaticchana 10. Investigating – Santirana 11. Determining – Votthapana 12. Impulsion – Javana 13. Registering – Tadalambana 14. Death – Cuti citta


Consciousness / Cittas

Cittas perform 14 different functions :

1. Rebirth linking – Patisandhi citta 2. Life continuum – Bhavanga cittas 3. Adverting 4. Seeing 5. Hearing 6. Smelling 7. Tasting 8. Touching 9. Receiving – Sampaticchana 10. Investigating – Santirana 11. Determining – Votthapana 12. Impulsion – Javana 13. Registering – Tadalambana 14. Death – Cuti citta


Consciousness / Cittas

Cittas perform 14 different functions :

1. Rebirth linking – Patisandhi citta 2. Life continuum – Bhavanga cittas 3. Adverting 4. Seeing 5. Hearing 6. Smelling 7. Tasting 8. Touching 9. Receiving – Sampaticchana 10. Investigating – Santirana 11. Determining – Votthapana 12. Impulsion – Javana 13. Registering – Tadalambana 14. Death – Cuti citta


Consciousness / Cittas

Cittas perform 14 different functions :

1. Rebirth linking – Patisandhi citta 2. Life continuum – Bhavanga cittas 3. Adverting 4. Seeing 5. Hearing 6. Smelling 7. Tasting 8. Touching 9. Receiving – Sampaticchana 10. Investigating – Santirana 11. Determining – Votthapana 12. Impulsion – Javana 13. Registering – Tadalambana 14. Death – Cuti citta


Consciousness / Cittas

Cittas perform 14 different functions :

1. Rebirth linking – Patisandhi citta 2. Life continuum – Bhavanga cittas 3. Adverting 4. Seeing 5. Hearing 6. Smelling 7. Tasting 8. Touching 9. Receiving – Sampaticchana 10. Investigating – Santirana 11. Determining – Votthapana 12. Impulsion – Javana 13. Registering – Tadalambana 14. Death – Cuti citta


Consciousness / Cittas

According to the Abhidhamma, millions of thoughts run through our minds every second.

Each thought consists of a stream of 17 thought moments which are types of consciousness or cittas.

Therefore, there are billions of cittas occurring in our minds each second, which are too quick to be perceived.


Consciousness / Cittas

According to the Abhidhamma, millions of thoughts run through our minds every second.

Each thought consists of a stream of 17 thought moments which are types of consciousness or cittas.

Therefore, there are billions of cittas occurring in our minds each second, which are too quick to be perceived.


Consciousness / Cittas

According to the Abhidhamma, millions of thoughts run through our minds every second.

Each thought consists of a stream of 17 thought moments which are types of consciousness or cittas.

Therefore, there are billions of cittas occurring in our minds each second, which are too quick to be perceived.


Mental Factors / Cetasikas

These are the 52 mental factors that arise together, and are associated, with consciousness and can be subdivided into four types :

1. Universals

2. Occasionals

3. Unwholesome

4. Wholesome


Mental Factors / Cetasikas

These are the 52 mental factors that arise together, and are associated, with consciousness and can be subdivided into four types :

1. Universals

2. Occasionals

3. Unwholesome

4. Wholesome


Mental Factors / Cetasikas

These are the 52 mental factors that arise together, and are associated, with consciousness and can be subdivided into four types :

1. Universals

2. Occasionals

3. Unwholesome

4. Wholesome


Mental Factors / Cetasikas

These are the 52 mental factors that arise together, and are associated, with consciousness and can be subdivided into four types :

1. Universals

2. Occasionals

3. Unwholesome

4. Wholesome


Mental Factors / Cetasikas

These are the 52 mental factors that arise together, and are associated, with consciousness and can be subdivided into four types :

1. Universals

2. Occasionals

3. Unwholesome

4. Wholesome


Mental Factors / Cetasikas

These are the 52 mental factors that arise together, and are associated, with consciousness and can be subdivided into four types :

1. Universals

2. Occasionals

3. Unwholesome

4. Wholesome


Form / Rupa

All matter is comprised of 4 elements, in varying degrees, which are the building blocks of all material things :

1. Earth element : Solidity

2. Water element : Fluidity

3. Fire element : Temperature

4. Wind element : Motion


Form / Rupa

All matter is comprised of 4 elements, in varying degrees, which are the building blocks of all material things :

1. Earth element : Solidity

2. Water element : Fluidity

3. Fire element : Temperature

4. Wind element : Motion


Form / Rupa

All matter is comprised of 4 elements, in varying degrees, which are the building blocks of all material things :

1. Earth element : Solidity

2. Water element : Fluidity

3. Fire element : Temperature

4. Wind element : Motion


Form / Rupa

All matter is comprised of 4 elements, in varying degrees, which are the building blocks of all material things :

1. Earth element : Solidity

2. Water element : Fluidity

3. Fire element : Temperature

4. Wind element : Motion


Form / Rupa

All matter is comprised of 4 elements, in varying degrees, which are the building blocks of all material things :

1. Earth element : Solidity

2. Water element : Fluidity

3. Fire element : Temperature

4. Wind element : Motion


Form / Rupa

All matter is comprised of 4 elements, in varying degrees, which are the building blocks of all material things :

1. Earth element : Solidity

2. Water element : Fluidity

3. Fire element : Temperature

4. Wind element : Motion


The Thought Process

A thought process starts when an object impinges on one of our senses. In Buddhism, there are 6 senses :

1. Seeing (Eye)

2. Hearing (Ear)

3. Smelling (Nose)

4. Tasting (Tongue)

5. Touching (Body)

6. Thinking (Mind)


The Thought Process

A thought process starts when an object impinges on one of our senses. In Buddhism, there are 6 senses :

1. Seeing (Eye)

2. Hearing (Ear)

3. Smelling (Nose)

4. Tasting (Tongue)

5. Touching (Body)

6. Thinking (Mind)


The Thought Process

A thought process starts when an object impinges on one of our senses. In Buddhism, there are 6 senses :

1. Seeing (Eye)

2. Hearing (Ear)

3. Smelling (Nose)

4. Tasting (Tongue)

5. Touching (Body)

6. Thinking (Mind)


The Thought Process

A thought process starts when an object impinges on one of our senses. In Buddhism, there are 6 senses :

1. Seeing (Eye)

2. Hearing (Ear)

3. Smelling (Nose)

4. Tasting (Tongue)

5. Touching (Body)

6. Thinking (Mind)


The Thought Process

A thought process starts when an object impinges on one of our senses. In Buddhism, there are 6 senses :

1. Seeing (Eye)

2. Hearing (Ear)

3. Smelling (Nose)

4. Tasting (Tongue)

5. Touching (Body)

6. Thinking (Mind)


The Thought Process

A thought process starts when an object impinges on one of our senses. In Buddhism, there are 6 senses :

1. Seeing (Eye)

2. Hearing (Ear)

3. Smelling (Nose)

4. Tasting (Tongue)

5. Touching (Body)

6. Thinking (Mind)


The Thought Process

A thought process starts when an object impinges on one of our senses. In Buddhism, there are 6 senses :

1. Seeing (Eye)

2. Hearing (Ear)

3. Smelling (Nose)

4. Tasting (Tongue)

5. Touching (Body)

6. Thinking (Mind)


The Thought Process

Example of thought process of Seeing :


The Thought Process

Example of thought process of Seeing :


The Thought Process

Example of thought process of Seeing :


The Thought Process

Example of thought process of Seeing :


The Thought Process

Example of thought process of Seeing :


The Thought Process

Example of thought process of Seeing :


The Thought Process

Example of thought process of Seeing :


The Thought Process

Five sense door thought process

Past Bhavanga - Vibrating Bhavanga - Arrest Bhavanga

Sense door Adverting

Eye / Ear / Nose / Tongue / Body Consciousness

Receiving Consciousness – Investigating Consciousness

Determining Consciousness

Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana

Registering Consciousness – Registering Consciousness


The Thought Process

Five sense door thought process

Past Bhavanga - Vibrating Bhavanga - Arrest Bhavanga

Sense door Adverting

Eye / Ear / Nose / Tongue / Body Consciousness

Receiving Consciousness – Investigating Consciousness

Determining Consciousness

Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana

Registering Consciousness – Registering Consciousness


The Thought Process

Five sense door thought process

Past Bhavanga - Vibrating Bhavanga - Arrest Bhavanga

Sense door Adverting

Eye / Ear / Nose / Tongue / Body Consciousness

Receiving Consciousness – Investigating Consciousness

Determining Consciousness

Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana

Registering Consciousness – Registering Consciousness


The Thought Process

Five sense door thought process

Past Bhavanga - Vibrating Bhavanga - Arrest Bhavanga

Sense door Adverting

Eye / Ear / Nose / Tongue / Body Consciousness

Receiving Consciousness – Investigating Consciousness

Determining Consciousness

Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana

Registering Consciousness – Registering Consciousness


The Thought Process

Five sense door thought process

Past Bhavanga - Vibrating Bhavanga - Arrest Bhavanga

Sense door Adverting

Eye / Ear / Nose / Tongue / Body Consciousness

Receiving Consciousness – Investigating Consciousness

Determining Consciousness

Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana

Registering Consciousness – Registering Consciousness


The Thought Process

Five sense door thought process

Past Bhavanga - Vibrating Bhavanga - Arrest Bhavanga

Sense door Adverting

Eye / Ear / Nose / Tongue / Body Consciousness

Receiving Consciousness – Investigating Consciousness

Determining Consciousness

Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana

Registering Consciousness – Registering Consciousness


The Thought Process

Five sense door thought process

Past Bhavanga - Vibrating Bhavanga - Arrest Bhavanga

Sense door Adverting

Eye / Ear / Nose / Tongue / Body Consciousness

Receiving Consciousness – Investigating Consciousness

Determining Consciousness

Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana

Registering Consciousness – Registering Consciousness


The Thought Process

Thought process at death

One of three objects will appear in the consciousness of a person just before death :

1. Recollection of a past kamma- Kamma

2. An object related to a past kamma

- Kamma nimitta

3. A sign of destiny

- Gati nimitta


The Thought Process

Thought process at death

One of three objects will appear in the consciousness of a person just before death :

1. Recollection of a past kamma- Kamma

2. An object related to a past kamma

- Kamma nimitta

3. A sign of destiny

- Gati nimitta


The Thought Process

Thought process at death

One of three objects will appear in the consciousness of a person just before death :

1. Recollection of a past kamma- Kamma

2. An object related to a past kamma

- Kamma nimitta

3. A sign of destiny

- Gati nimitta


The Thought Process

Thought process at death

One of three objects will appear in the consciousness of a person just before death :

1. Recollection of a past kamma- Kamma

2. An object related to a past kamma

- Kamma nimitta

3. A sign of destiny

- Gati nimitta


The Thought Process

Thought process at death

One of three objects will appear in the consciousness of a person just before death :

1. Recollection of a past kamma- Kamma

2. An object related to a past kamma

- Kamma nimitta

3. A sign of destiny

- Gati nimitta


The Thought Process

Thought process at death

The object, appearing at the last thought process (sense door or mind door), arises to the javana cittas just before the death citta.

This object effectively determines the place of the next rebirth.

This is because the first citta in the next life (rebirth linking or patisandhi citta) will take the same object, and so will the subsequent life continuum (bhavanga) cittas.


The Thought Process

Thought process at death

The object, appearing at the last thought process (sense door or mind door), arises to the javana cittas just before the death citta.

This object effectively determines the place of the next rebirth.

This is because the first citta in the next life (rebirth linking or patisandhi citta) will take the same object, and so will the subsequent life continuum (bhavanga) cittas.


The Thought Process

Thought process at death

The object, appearing at the last thought process (sense door or mind door), arises to the javana cittas just before the death citta.

This object effectively determines the place of the next rebirth.

This is because the first citta in the next life (rebirth linking or patisandhi citta) will take the same object, and so will the subsequent life continuum (bhavanga) cittas.


The Thought Process

Thought process at death

Last thought process before death

First thought process in the new life


The Thought Process

Thought process at death

Last thought process before death

First thought process in the new life


The Thought Process

Thought process at death

Last thought process before death

First thought process in the new life


The Thought Process

Thought process at death

Last thought process before death

First thought process in the new life


The Thought Process

Thought process at death

Last thought process before death

First thought process in the new life


The Thought Process

Thought process at death

Last thought process before death

First thought process in the new life


The Thought Process

Thought process at death

Last thought process before death

First thought process in the new life


The Thought Process

Thought process at death

Last thought process before death

First thought process in the new life


The Thought Process

Thought process at death

Last thought process before death

First thought process in the new life


The Thought Process

Thought process at death

Last thought process before death

First thought process in the new life


31 Planes of Existence


31 Planes of Existence


31 Planes of Existence


31 Planes of Existence


The Last Thought Moment

According to the Theravada Abhidhamma, the last thought moment before death is of crucial importance as it determines the destination and condition of the next life.

Therefore, a person who has done much good in his life, may have an unfortunate rebirth due to an adverse last thought moment, and vice versa.


The Last Thought Moment

According to the Theravada Abhidhamma, the last thought moment before death is of crucial importance as it determines the destination and condition of the next life.

Therefore, a person who has done much good in his life, may have an unfortunate rebirth due to an adverse last thought moment, and vice versa.


The Last Thought Moment

However, this is against the general principle of kamma that one single thought moment can undo a life of good deeds, or conversely, make up for a life of evil.

In any case, it is impossible to control or predict the last thought moment as there are billions of thought moments arising and passing away every second.


The Last Thought Moment

However, this is against the general principle of kamma that one single thought moment can undo a life of good deeds, or conversely, make up for a life of evil.

In any case, it is impossible to control or predict the last thought moment as there are billions of thought moments arising and passing away every second.


The Last Thought Moment

It is much more likely that a person who has done many evil deeds will have the bad kamma of an unwholesome last thought moment, despite the conditions of death, leading to a less fortunate rebirth.

In the same way, a person who has done many good things, will very likely have the good kamma of a wholesome last thought moment, leading to a fortunate rebirth, despite the conditions of death.


The Last Thought Moment

It is much more likely that a person who has done many evil deeds will have the bad kamma of an unwholesome last thought moment, despite the conditions of death, leading to a less fortunate rebirth.

In the same way, a person who has done many good things, will very likely have the good kamma of a wholesome last thought moment, leading to a fortunate rebirth, despite the conditions of death.


The Last Thought Moment

A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma by Bhikkhu Bodhi :

“…we might briefly note a few of the Abhidhammic conceptions that are characteristic of the Commentaries but either unknown or recessive in the Abhidhamma Pitaka itself.

One is the detailed account of the cognitive process (cittavithi).”


The Last Thought Moment

A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma by Bhikkhu Bodhi :

“…we might briefly note a few of the Abhidhammic conceptions that are characteristic of the Commentaries but either unknown or recessive in the Abhidhamma Pitaka itself.

One is the detailed account of the cognitive process (cittavithi).”


The Last Thought Moment

A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma by Bhikkhu Bodhi :

“…we might briefly note a few of the Abhidhammic conceptions that are characteristic of the Commentaries but either unknown or recessive in the Abhidhamma Pitaka itself.

One is the detailed account of the cognitive process (cittavithi).”


The Last Thought Moment

“While this conception seems to be tacitly recognized in the canonical books, it now comes to be drawn out for use as an explanatory tool in its own right.

The functions of the cittas, the different types of consciousness, are specified, and in time the cittas themselves come to be designated by way of their functions.”


The Last Thought Moment

“While this conception seems to be tacitly recognized in the canonical books, it now comes to be drawn out for use as an explanatory tool in its own right.

The functions of the cittas, the different types of consciousness, are specified, and in time the cittas themselves come to be designated by way of their functions.”


Consciousness / Cittas

Cittas perform 14 different functions :

1. Rebirth linking – Patisandhi citta 2. Life continuum – Bhavanga cittas 3. Adverting 4. Seeing 5. Hearing 6. Smelling 7. Tasting 8. Touching 9. Receiving – Sampaticchana 10. Investigating – Santirana 11. Determining – Votthapana 12. Impulsion – Javana 13. Registering – Tadalambana 14. Death – Cuti citta


The Thought Process

Five sense door thought process

Past Bhavanga - Vibrating Bhavanga - Arrest Bhavanga

Sense door Adverting

Eye / Ear / Nose / Tongue / Body Consciousness

Receiving Consciousness – Investigating Consciousness

Determining Consciousness

Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana – Javana

Registering Consciousness – Registering Consciousness


The Thought Process

Thought process at death

Last thought process before death

First thought process in the new life


The Last Thought Moment

Several views of the Last Thought Moment in the Sutta Pitaka :

Dhammapada Verse 151

Majjhima Nikaya 136

Majjhima Nikaya 143

Samyutta Nikaya 55.21


The Last Thought Moment

Several views of the Last Thought Moment in the Sutta Pitaka :

Dhammapada Verse 151

Majjhima Nikaya 136

Majjhima Nikaya 143

Samyutta Nikaya 55.21


The Last Thought Moment

Several views of the Last Thought Moment in the Sutta Pitaka :

Dhammapada Verse 151

Majjhima Nikaya 136

Majjhima Nikaya 143

Samyutta Nikaya 55.21


The Last Thought Moment

Several views of the Last Thought Moment in the Sutta Pitaka :

Dhammapada Verse 151

Majjhima Nikaya 136

Majjhima Nikaya 143

Samyutta Nikaya 55.21


The Last Thought Moment

Several views of the Last Thought Moment in the Sutta Pitaka :

Dhammapada Verse 151

Majjhima Nikaya 136

Majjhima Nikaya 143

Samyutta Nikaya 55.21


The Last Thought Moment

Dhammapada Verse 151

The much ornamented royal carriages do wear out; the body also grows old;

But the Dhamma of the Wise does not decay. Thus, indeed, say the Wise among themselves.


The Last Thought Moment

Dhammapada Verse 151

The much ornamented royal carriages do wear out; the body also grows old;

But the Dhamma of the Wise does not decay. Thus, indeed, say the Wise among themselves.


The Last Thought Moment

Dhammapada Verse 151

The much ornamented royal carriages do wear out; the body also grows old;

But the Dhamma of the Wise does not decay. Thus, indeed, say the Wise among themselves.


The Last Thought Moment

Dhammapada Verse 151

This Verse is usually cited to support the importance of the Last Thought Moment.

It is also known as the Story of Queen Mallika who was a dedicated follower of the Buddha. She led a morally upright life and also supported the Sangha.

Unfortunately, she one day lied to her husband, King Pasenadi of Kosala.


The Last Thought Moment

Dhammapada Verse 151

This Verse is usually cited to support the importance of the Last Thought Moment.

It is also known as the Story of Queen Mallika who was a dedicated follower of the Buddha. She led a morally upright life and also supported the Sangha.

Unfortunately, she one day lied to her husband, King Pasenadi of Kosala.


The Last Thought Moment

Dhammapada Verse 151

This Verse is usually cited to support the importance of the Last Thought Moment.

It is also known as the Story of Queen Mallika who was a dedicated follower of the Buddha. She led a morally upright life and also supported the Sangha.

Unfortunately, she one day lied to her husband, King Pasenadi of Kosala.


The Last Thought Moment

Dhammapada Verse 151

On her death bed, she forgot about all her good deeds, but instead remembered only the incident when she told a lie.

As a result was reborn in a hell realm and suffered there for 7 days.

This story however, is only a Commentary by Buddhaghosa in the 4th or 5th century CE, giving a background to the Verse.


The Last Thought Moment

Dhammapada Verse 151

On her death bed, she forgot about all her good deeds, but instead remembered only the incident when she told a lie.

As a result was reborn in a hell realm and suffered there for 7 days.

This story however, is only a Commentary by Buddhaghosa in the 4th or 5th century CE, giving a background to the Verse.


The Last Thought Moment

Dhammapada Verse 151

On her death bed, she forgot about all her good deeds, but instead remembered only the incident when she told a lie.

As a result was reborn in a hell realm and suffered there for 7 days.

This story however, is only a Commentary by Buddhaghosa in the 4th or 5th century CE, giving a background to the Verse.


The Last Thought Moment

Mahakammavibhanga SuttaMajjhima Nikaya 136

The Buddha commented on the following 4 kinds of people :

1. The evil-doer who goes to hell. 2. The evil-doer who goes to heaven. 3. The good man who goes to heaven. 4. The good man who goes to hell.


The Last Thought Moment

Mahakammavibhanga SuttaMajjhima Nikaya 136

The Buddha commented on the following 4 kinds of people :

1. The evil-doer who goes to hell. 2. The evil-doer who goes to heaven. 3. The good man who goes to heaven. 4. The good man who goes to hell.


The Last Thought Moment

Mahakammavibhanga SuttaMajjhima Nikaya 136

The Buddha commented on the following 4 kinds of people :

1. The evil-doer who goes to hell. 2. The evil-doer who goes to heaven. 3. The good man who goes to heaven. 4. The good man who goes to hell.


The Last Thought Moment

Mahakammavibhanga SuttaMajjhima Nikaya 136

The Buddha commented on the following 4 kinds of people :

1. The evil-doer who goes to hell. 2. The evil-doer who goes to heaven. 3. The good man who goes to heaven. 4. The good man who goes to hell.


The Last Thought Moment

Mahakammavibhanga SuttaMajjhima Nikaya 136

The Buddha commented on the following 4 kinds of people :

1. The evil-doer who goes to hell. 2. The evil-doer who goes to heaven. 3. The good man who goes to heaven. 4. The good man who goes to hell.


The Last Thought Moment

Mahakammavibhanga SuttaMajjhima Nikaya 136

The Buddha commented on the following 4 kinds of people :

1. The evil-doer who goes to hell. 2. The evil-doer who goes to heaven. 3. The good man who goes to heaven. 4. The good man who goes to hell.


The Last Thought Moment

Mahakammavibhanga SuttaMajjhima Nikaya 136

A person who had done wrong and held wrong views, will be reborn in a bad destination.

The evil kamma was done earlier, or later, or wrong view was undertaken and completed by him at the time of his death.


The Last Thought Moment

Mahakammavibhanga SuttaMajjhima Nikaya 136

A person who had done wrong and held wrong views, will be reborn in a bad destination.

The evil kamma was done earlier, or later, or wrong view was undertaken and completed by him at the time of his death.


The Last Thought Moment

Mahakammavibhanga SuttaMajjhima Nikaya 136

A person who had done wrong and held wrong views, will be reborn in a good destination.

The good kamma was done earlier, or later, or right view was undertaken and completed by him at the time of his death.


The Last Thought Moment

Mahakammavibhanga SuttaMajjhima Nikaya 136

A person who had done wrong and held wrong views, will be reborn in a good destination.

The good kamma was done earlier, or later, or right view was undertaken and completed by him at the time of his death.


The Last Thought Moment

Patthana explains that all phenomena arise in dependence on other phenomena, such that :

No single cause can produce an effect.

A cause does not produce only a single effect.

Therefore, it is a collection of causes which produces a collection of effects.


The Last Thought Moment

Patthana explains that all phenomena arise in dependence on other phenomena, such that :

No single cause can produce an effect.

A cause does not produce only a single effect.

Therefore, it is a collection of causes which produces a collection of effects.


The Last Thought Moment

Patthana explains that all phenomena arise in dependence on other phenomena, such that :

No single cause can produce an effect.

A cause does not produce only a single effect.

Therefore, it is a collection of causes which produces a collection of effects.


The Last Thought Moment

Patthana explains that all phenomena arise in dependence on other phenomena, such that :

No single cause can produce an effect.

A cause does not produce only a single effect.

Therefore, it is a collection of causes which produces a collection of effects.


The Last Thought Moment

Mahakammavibhanga SuttaMajjhima Nikaya 136

A person who had done good and held right views, will be reborn in a good destination.

The good kamma was done earlier, or later, or right view was undertaken and completed by him at the time of his death.


The Last Thought Moment

Mahakammavibhanga SuttaMajjhima Nikaya 136

A person who had done good and held right views, will be reborn in a good destination.

The good kamma was done earlier, or later, or right view was undertaken and completed by him at the time of his death.


The Last Thought Moment

Mahakammavibhanga SuttaMajjhima Nikaya 136

A person who had done good and held right views, will be reborn in a bad destination.

The evil kamma was done earlier, or later, or wrong view was undertaken and completed by him at the time of his death.


The Last Thought Moment

Mahakammavibhanga SuttaMajjhima Nikaya 136

A person who had done good and held right views, will be reborn in a bad destination.

The evil kamma was done earlier, or later, or wrong view was undertaken and completed by him at the time of his death.


The Last Thought Moment

Wrong view is one of the Ten Demeritorious Deeds. Right view is a factor of the Noble Eightfold Path.

Wrong view will be of the type : “There is no kamma, no results of kamma. No evil, no results of evil, etc.”

Right view will be of the type :“There is kamma, results of kamma. Evil, results of evil, etc.“


The Last Thought Moment

Wrong view is one of the Ten Demeritorious Deeds. Right view is a factor of the Noble Eightfold Path.

Wrong view will be of the type : “There is no kamma, no results of kamma. No evil, no results of evil, etc.”

Right view will be of the type :“There is kamma, results of kamma. Evil, results of evil, etc.“


The Last Thought Moment

Wrong view is one of the Ten Demeritorious Deeds. Right view is a factor of the Noble Eightfold Path.

Wrong view will be of the type : “There is no kamma, no results of kamma. No evil, no results of evil, etc.”

Right view will be of the type :“There is kamma, results of kamma. Evil, results of evil, etc.“


The Last Thought Moment

Wrong view is one of the Ten Demeritorious Deeds. Right view is a factor of the Noble Eightfold Path.

Wrong view will be of the type : “There is no kamma, no results of kamma. No evil, no results of evil, etc.”

Right view will be of the type :“There is kamma, results of kamma. Evil, results of evil, etc.”


The Last Thought Moment

Anathapindikovada Sutta Majjhima Nikaya 143

Ven. Sariputta visited Anathapindika on his deathbed and gave him a teaching.

Train yourself : “I won't cling to the eye, nose, tongue, body, intellect… forms, consciousness, contact, feeling… this world, the next world…”

No mention of the Last Thought Moment.


The Last Thought Moment

Anathapindikovada Sutta Majjhima Nikaya 143

Ven. Sariputta visited Anathapindika on his deathbed and gave him a teaching.

Train yourself : “I won't cling to the eye, nose, tongue, body, intellect… forms, consciousness, contact, feeling… this world, the next world…”

No mention of the Last Thought Moment.


The Last Thought Moment

Anathapindikovada Sutta Majjhima Nikaya 143

Ven. Sariputta visited Anathapindika on his deathbed and gave him a teaching.

Train yourself : “I won't cling to the eye, nose, tongue, body, intellect… forms, consciousness, contact, feeling… this world, the next world…”

No mention of the Last Thought Moment.


The Last Thought Moment

Anathapindikovada Sutta Majjhima Nikaya 143

Ven. Sariputta visited Anathapindika on his deathbed and gave him a teaching.

Train yourself : “I won't cling to the eye, nose, tongue, body, intellect… forms, consciousness, contact, feeling… this world, the next world…”

No mention of the Last Thought Moment.


The Last Thought Moment

Mahanama Sutta 1 Samyutta Nikaya 55.21

Mahanama, a staunch follower of the Buddha, said that he was worried about his rebirth, should he suddenly meet with an accident and die.

He asked the Buddha what would be his destination should he die with a muddled and confused state of mind, in such a situation.


The Last Thought Moment

Mahanama Sutta 1 Samyutta Nikaya 55.21

Mahanama, a staunch follower of the Buddha, said that he was worried about his rebirth, should he suddenly meet with an accident and die.

He asked the Buddha what would be his destination should he die with a muddled and confused state of mind, in such a situation.


The Last Thought Moment

Mahanama Sutta 1 Samyutta Nikaya 55.21

Mahanama, a staunch follower of the Buddha, said that he was worried about his rebirth, should he suddenly meet with an accident and die.

He asked the Buddha what would be his destination should he die with a muddled and confused state of mind, in such a situation.


The Last Thought Moment

Mahanama Sutta 1 Samyutta Nikaya 55.21

The Buddha told him not to worry because if a person has cultivated the following Five Qualities, then that person will go to a good destination.

1. Faith

2. Virtue

3. Learning

4. Generosity

5. Wisdom


The Last Thought Moment

Mahanama Sutta 1 Samyutta Nikaya 55.21

The Buddha told him not to worry because if a person has cultivated the following Five Qualities, then that person will go to a good destination.

1. Faith

2. Virtue

3. Learning

4. Generosity

5. Wisdom


The Last Thought Moment

Mahanama Sutta 1 Samyutta Nikaya 55.21

The Buddha told him not to worry because if a person has cultivated the following Five Qualities, then that person will go to a good destination.

1. Faith

2. Virtue

3. Learning

4. Generosity

5. Wisdom


The Last Thought Moment

Mahanama Sutta 1 Samyutta Nikaya 55.21

The Buddha told him not to worry because if a person has cultivated the following Five Qualities, then that person will go to a good destination.

1. Faith

2. Virtue

3. Learning

4. Generosity

5. Wisdom


The Last Thought Moment

Mahanama Sutta 1 Samyutta Nikaya 55.21

The Buddha told him not to worry because if a person has cultivated the following Five Qualities, then that person will go to a good destination.

1. Faith

2. Virtue

3. Learning

4. Generosity

5. Wisdom


The Last Thought Moment

Mahanama Sutta 1 Samyutta Nikaya 55.21

The Buddha told him not to worry because if a person has cultivated the following Five Qualities, then that person will go to a good destination.

1. Faith

2. Virtue

3. Learning

4. Generosity

5. Wisdom


The Last Thought Moment

Mahanama Sutta 1 Samyutta Nikaya 55.21

The Buddha then gave the example of a pot of ghee submerged in water, then broken up. The fragments will sink but the ghee will rise.

Similarly, a person who has cultivated the above Five Qualities will be reborn in a good destination.


The Last Thought Moment

Mahanama Sutta 1 Samyutta Nikaya 55.21

The Buddha then gave the example of a pot of ghee submerged in water, then broken up. The fragments will sink but the ghee will rise.

Similarly, a person who has cultivated the above Five Qualities will be reborn in a good destination.


The Last Thought Moment

Important or not?

The critical importance of the Last Thought Moment as the sole determinant of the next rebirth, appears to be unknown in the teachings of early Buddhism.


The Last Thought Moment

Important or not?

The critical importance of the Last Thought Moment as the sole determinant of the next rebirth, appears to be unknown in the teachings of early Buddhism.


The Last Thought Moment

A Guide to Buddhism A – ZVen. S. Dhammika

“…the theory developed that the last thought moment a person has before they die will determine their next life.

This idea, now current in Theravāda, seems to be an unjustified development of the Buddha’s teachings and at odds with his idea of kamma and the efficacy of morality.”


The Last Thought Moment

A Guide to Buddhism A – ZVen. S. Dhammika

“…the theory developed that the last thought moment a person has before they die will determine their next life.

This idea, now current in Theravāda, seems to be an unjustified development of the Buddha’s teachings and at odds with his idea of kamma and the efficacy of morality.”


The Last Thought Moment

A Guide to Buddhism A – ZVen. S. Dhammika

“…the theory developed that the last thought moment a person has before they die will determine their next life.

This idea, now current in Theravāda, seems to be an unjustified development of the Buddha’s teachings and at odds with his idea of kamma and the efficacy of morality.”


The Last Thought Moment

“This theory is not mentioned in any of the Buddha’s discourses or even in the later Abhidhamma Pitaka.

The Tipitaka records many occasions where the Buddha counselled people who were either dying or critically ill.

If the last thought is really crucial to one’s destiny, one would expect such occasions for him to mention it, and yet he never did.”


The Last Thought Moment

“This theory is not mentioned in any of the Buddha’s discourses or even in the later Abhidhamma Pitaka.

The Tipitaka records many occasions where the Buddha counselled people who were either dying or critically ill.

If the last thought is really crucial to one’s destiny, one would expect such occasions for him to mention it, and yet he never did.”


The Last Thought Moment

“This theory is not mentioned in any of the Buddha’s discourses or even in the later Abhidhamma Pitaka.

The Tipitaka records many occasions where the Buddha counselled people who were either dying or critically ill.

If the last thought is really crucial to one’s destiny, one would expect such occasions for him to mention it, and yet he never did.”


The Last Thought Moment

Important or not?

Far more important is our overall cultivation and consistent practice :

Faith / Conviction

Virtue / Morality

Learning / Effort

Generosity / Compassion

Wisdom / Mental Cultivation


The Last Thought Moment

Important or not?

Far more important is our overall cultivation and consistent practice :

Faith / Conviction

Virtue / Morality

Learning / Effort

Generosity / Compassion

Wisdom / Mental Cultivation


The Last Thought Moment

Important or not?

Far more important is our overall cultivation and consistent practice :

Faith / Conviction

Virtue / Morality

Learning / Effort

Generosity / Compassion

Wisdom / Mental Cultivation


The Last Thought Moment

Important or not?

Far more important is our overall cultivation and consistent practice :

Faith / Conviction

Virtue / Morality

Learning / Effort

Generosity / Compassion

Wisdom / Mental Cultivation


The Last Thought Moment

Important or not?

Far more important is our overall cultivation and consistent practice :

Faith / Conviction

Virtue / Morality

Learning / Effort

Generosity / Compassion

Wisdom / Mental Cultivation


The Last Thought Moment

Important or not?

Far more important is our overall cultivation and consistent practice :

Faith / Conviction

Virtue / Morality

Learning / Effort

Generosity / Compassion

Wisdom / Mental Cultivation


The Abhidhamma

Although the Abhidhamma is not directly the words of the Buddha, most of its important elements can be traced to His teachings.

Therefore, if placed in the proper context, we should learn the Abhidhamma to broaden our knowledge and acquire different perspectives of the Buddha’s teachings.


The Abhidhamma

Although the Abhidhamma is not directly the words of the Buddha, most of its important elements can be traced to His teachings.

Therefore, if placed in the proper context, we should learn the Abhidhamma to broaden our knowledge and acquire different perspectives of the Buddha’s teachings.


Prepared by T Y Lee

www.justbegood.net


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