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Psychology 412. Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy. Textbook: Counseling and Psychotherapy by Les Parrott III Casebook: Case Approach to Counseling and Psychotherapy , 6th edition. by Gerald Corey . Upstate.

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Psychology 412 l.jpg

Psychology 412

Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy

Textbook: Counseling and Psychotherapy by Les Parrott III Casebook: Case Approach to Counseling and Psychotherapy, 6th edition. by Gerald Corey


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Upstate

  • Counseling/Psychotherapy

  • The Helping Professions

  • Treatment in which a trained professional employs psychological techniques to help another.

  • Some differences - counseling/psychotherapy

  • Trained professional may be . . .

1. Psychiatrists

2. Clinical psychologists

3. Counseling psychologist

4. School psychologist

5. Marriage/family therapists

6. Social workers

7. School counselors

8. Rehabilitation counselors.


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Upstate

  • Many approaches to psychotherapy

  • Corsini’s books

  • Only 10 - 12 approaches are well-known

  • Commonalities between approaches

     Developing expectancies for change (hope)

     Reducing discomfort

     Fostering insight (a new view of oneself)

     Encouraging catharsis (expressing emotions)

     Providing new information.


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Upstate

  • Although some commonalities, there are many differences between approaches

  • This course - 8 approaches

    1. Psychoanalysis, TLDP, Imago Therapy

    2. Transactional analysis

    3. Person-centered therapy, Emotion Focused Therapy

    4. Gestalt therapy

    5. Cognitive therapies (Ellis & Beck)

    6. Reality therapy

    7. Behavioral therapy

    8. Family therapy.


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Upstate

  • Therapies sometimes classified into general categories

     Analytical approaches

    (Psychoanalytic, TLDP, Transactional Analysis, Imago Therapy)

     Experiental and relationship oriented therapies

    (Person-Centered, Emotion Focused, Gestalt)

     Action-oriented therapies

    (Reality Therapy, Behavioral Therapy, Cognitive Therapy)

     Systems approaches

    (Family Therapy).


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Upstate

  • In regard to the 8 approaches studied, we will examine:

    1. Biography of developer

    2. Historical development

    3. View of human nature

    4. Development of maladaptive behavior

    5. Function of therapist

    6. Goals of therapy

    7. Major methods and techniques

    8. Application and key terms.


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Upstate

  • Over time a therapist develops his/her own style

  • Most are eclectic

  • Selecting concepts and methods from a variety of approaches and weaving them into one’s own personal style

  • Things therapists may do: listen, connect present to past, use role-playing, analyze thinking, give homework assignments, sign contracts, teach…

  • Therapists often pay attention to their clients thinking, feeling, and doing.


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Upstate

  • “Psychotherapy continues to battle the mistaken notion that therapists have ‘magical’ powers.”

  • “The public must be educated regarding the realities of counseling and professionals need to help dispel erroneous thinking about counseling.” (Parrott, page 47).


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Upstate

  • Dispelling erroneous thinking.

  • The Shrinking of America: Myths of Psychological Change by B. Zilbergeld

    Myth #1: There is one best therapy

    Myth #2: Counseling is equally effective for all problems

    Myth #3: Great changes are the rule

    Myth #4: The longer the therapy, the better the results

    Myth #5: Therapy changes are permanent or at least long-lasting

    Myth #6: Therapy is never harmful.


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Upstate

  • Critical question: Is Psychotherapy Effective?

  • Outcome research

  • After years of research, general conclusion: “the evidence overwhelming supports the efficacy of psychotherapy”. (Myers, 1999)

  • Three common factors which underlie the effectiveness of therapy:

     Therapeutic technique

     Therapeutic relationship.


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Upstate

 Client factors

  • Expectancy: will treatment help?

  • Quality of a client’s participation in treatment

  • Client’s perception of therapist and what therapist is doing

  • The duration of client’s complaints

  • Client’s social support system and the environments in which they live

  • Client’s strengths and resources.


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