20 th century music
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20 th Century Music. Music that You may know! And some you won’t. Musical Characteristics. Diatonic Harmony gave way to Atonal Music . Electronic Music developed with the technology . Composers experimented with different ideas about how to create music.

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20 th Century Music

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20 th century music

20th Century Music

Music that You may know!

And some you won’t


Musical characteristics

Musical Characteristics

  • Diatonic Harmony gave way to Atonal Music.

  • Electronic Music developed with the technology.

  • Composers experimented with different ideas about how to create music.

  • Composers were influenced by music from other styles and cultures.


Atonal music

Atonal Music

  • Atonal music has no key and therefore no hierarchy of pitches.

  • This means that many of the key aspects of western music no longer function (e.g. cadences, chords, etc.)

  • Atonal music frequently sounds very dissonant.

  • Serialismis a type of atonal music developed by a composer called Schoenberg.


Serialism

Serialism

  • Schoenberg tried to reintroduce an element

  • of structure into his atonal music.

  • • In Serialism you write a tone row containing

  • each of the 12 chromatic pitches just once.

  • • You then manipulate the tone row using

  • specified techniques: inversion, transposition

  • and retrograde.

  • • Some composers went on to develop

  • Serialism by adapting these techniques to

  • note values, instrumentation, etc.


Electronic

Electronic

  • • Electronic music uses sounds generated

  • electronically rather than by acoustic instruments.

  • • Composers who wrote electronic music often used

  • the technology to create new sounds unlike anything

  • that could be played on an acoustic instrument.

  • • Electronic music often sounds crude compared to the

  • sophisticated electronic sounds we are used to with

  • modern music.

  • • Some composers used electronics to manipulate

  • acoustic sounds rather than generate electronic

  • sounds.


Experimental

Experimental

  • • Aleatoric Music – music created using

  • chance.

  • • Graphic Score – music written down as a

  • picture without using conventional notation.

  • The performer has to interpret the picture.

  • • Microtonal – music that uses intervals smaller

  • than a semitone.

  • • Extended Techniques – music that requires

  • the instrument to be adapted or played in an

  • unconventional manner


Neoclassicism

Neoclassicism

  • • A reaction against the unpleasant

  • sounding modern music.

  • • Composers revisited older techniques

  • and harmonies but still keeps some of

  • the characteristics of modern music.

  • • Dissonance (in parts) and unusual

  • rhythms are characteristic of

  • Neoclassical music.


Minimalism

Minimalism

  • • Minimalist music consists of looped

  • layers.

  • • Each layer is gradually altered during

  • the course of the piece.

  • • It is very repetitive and often very long.


Other styles of music

Other Styles of Music

  • • Many composers were influenced by

  • other styles of music. In particular:

  • – World Music

  • – Jazz

  • – Popular Music


Multimedia

Multimedia

  • • Other composers are noted for mixing

  • their music with other art forms such as:

  • – Film

  • – Graphic Art

  • – Video


I nstrumental music

Instrumental Music

  • • Just about any combination of instruments is

  • written for using any of the musical

  • techniques described before.

  • • The orchestra stays mostly the same but with

  • the addition of some unusual percussion

  • instruments for particular pieces.

  • • Chamber ensembles become more popular

  • after being almost


Vocal music

Vocal Music

  • • Vocal ensembles are still the same as they

  • have been since the Classical Era, soloists

  • and choruses with an occasional chamber

  • ensemble.

  • • Voices and instruments are used together on

  • a more regular basis.

  • • Vocal music (both sacred and secular) is

  • written using any of the techniques described

  • before.


Arnold schoenberg 1874 1951

Arnold Schoenberg (1874 – 1951)

  • 20th century expressionist composer who developed a systematic method of organizing atonal music called the 12 tone system


Aaron copland

Aaron Copland

  • American composer who incorporated American folk songs, cowboy songs, revival hymns and jazz in his orchestral compositions

  • Works include Billy the Kid,Rodeo and Appalachian Spring


Igor stravinsky 1882 1971

Igor Stravinsky (1882 – 1971)

  • Russian expressionist composer

  • Famous for three ballets: The Firebird,

  • Petrushka, and the Rite of Spring


Claude debussy

Claude Debussy

  • French pianist/composer who linked the Romantic era to the 20th century

  • Greatest hits: Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun


Summary

Summary

  • • Dissonance and unusual rhythms make

  • music unpleasant to listen to.

  • • Electronic sounds, unusual instruments,

  • extended techniques all expand the

  • sounds available to the composer.

  • • Repetition and gradual change –

  • minimalist music.


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