『Microwave Device』 Term Project High Q, 3D Inductors for RF-IC. Bioelectonic Systems Lab. Choongjae Lee ( 2001-21538) [email protected] Introduction. RF-IC requires high performance passive components as an integrated form to reduce the total system size and assembly cost .
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< Ohmic loss reducing >
Thick metallization, multilayer metallization
< Eddy current reducing >
Patterned ground shield below the inductor
Thick or low dielectric layer to separate the spiral from the substrate
Using high resistivity (>4kΩ) silicon or ceramic, glass as the substrate
Etching away the underlying substrate
The inferior Q factor performance of the on-Si inductor originates from the relatively large increase in the parasitic capacitance to the substrate.
Toroidal geometry have optimal electromagnetic characteristics
Si sub 20Ωcm, 500㎛ thickness
(a) Input output lead lines patterning
(b) Silver – seed layer for electroplating
(c) Thick PR deposition
(d) anchoring pints patterning
(e) gold gold/palladium layer deposition
(f) suspended metal bridge patterning
(g) PR removing and metal thickening by electroplating copper and gold
Dout=Outer diameter of the coil
μ0=Vacuum permeability, μr=relative permeability,
N=Number of turns, rcoil=radius of the coil
rtorus=radius of the torus cross section
α(f) = current crowding effect coefficient
ρ = resistivity, Scoil = seperation between coilsToroidal Inductor 
This implementation is not intended
for direct integration with RF ICs
Metal Thickness = 4㎛, 15 turns
 Xi-ning Wang, “Fabrication and Performance of a novel suspended RF spiral inductor” IEEE Tran. On Electron Devices, Vol. 51, No. 5, May. 2004.
 D. J. Young, “Monolithic high-performance three-dimensional coil inductors for wireless communication applications” Int. EDM 97, 1997, pp 67-70
 N.Chomnawang, “On-chip 3D air core micro-inductor for high-frequency applications using deformation of sacrificial polymer” Proc. SPIE, Vol. 4334, pp. 54-62, 2001
 J.B.Yoon, “Surface micromachined solenoid on-Si and on-glass inductors for RF applications” IEEE Electron Device Lett., Vol. 20, pp 487-489, Sep. 1999.
 Wai Y. Liu, “Toroidal inductors for radio-frequency Integrated Circuits” IEEE Tran. On Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 52, No2, Feb. 2004.
 Vladimir Ermolov, “Microreplicated RF toroidal inductor” IEEE Tran. On Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 52, No. 1, Jan. 2004.