The End of Manifest Destiny

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Mexico Invites U.S. Settlers. Mexico allows Americans to settle in Mexico because it:prevented border violationsprotected territory from Indian attackseconomic reasons: encouraged American Farmers to settle in territory. Mexican Land Grants. Between. 1823

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The End of Manifest Destiny

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1. The End of Manifest Destiny Texas, California, the Gold Rush, and the conquest of the continental America

2. Mexico Invites U.S. Settlers Mexico allows Americans to settle in Mexico because it: prevented border violations protected territory from Indian attacks economic reasons: encouraged American Farmers to settle in territory

3. Mexican Land Grants Between. 1823 & 1824, Mexico offered land grants to agents called empresarios Empresarios sold cheap land to American settlers in return for their pledge to obey Mexican laws. to observe official religion of Roman Catholicism

4. Anglo’s in Mexico Population of Anglo, or English-speaking settlers in Mexico surpasses the Tejanos (American & Mexican settlers) “GO TO TEXAS” fever spreads in the U.S., prompting many to talk about annexing land up to the Rio Grande River Mexico previously refused John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson’s bids to buy land and began to regret allowing Americans to settle in Mexican territory.

5. Texas Declares Independence: Texas Fights to Remain Independent

6. Causes of the Texas Revolution: 1830: Mexican government sealed its borders Tensions grew over cultural differences between Anglo’s, Tejanos, & Mexicans Mexico slapped a heavy tax on American imports Protestant settlers refused to speak Spanish Mexico abolished slavery in 1824 American cotton & sugar farmers brought slaves to Texas to work their farms & plantations Mexico insisted that Texans free their slaves

7. Causes of the Texas Revolution:

8. Texans, Arm Yourselves! Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

10. Remember the Alamo! Santa Anna’s forces kill all 187 U.S. defenders at the Alamo, including two famous Americans: Jim Bowie Davy Crockett Many Mexicans perished in the battle as well Only a few women & children survived

11. Remember the Alamo!

13. The Republic of Texas Texans, led by Sam Houston, defeat Mexico and Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto Battle Cry “Remember the Alamo!” Texans killed 630 Mexicans and captured Santa Anna in 18 minutes! Santa Anna set free after he signed the Treaty of Velasco, granting Texas independence March 16, 1836: Texas ratified a constitution similar to that of the U.S. September 1836? Sam Houston elected president of the “Lone Star Republic,” which set up an army & navy

14. Battles of the fight for Texas’s Independence

15. The Lone Star Republic

16. TEXAS JOINS THE UNION! Many Texans likened themselves to American colonists who had defeated the British 60 years earlier 1838: Sam Houston invites the U.S. to annex, or incorporate, Texas into the union Many Texans hoped this would happen, agreed with U.S. annexation U.S. opinion divided: Southerners: sought to extend slavery already established in Texas Northerners: Feared annexation of more slave territory would: Tip the uneasy balance in the Senate in favor of the slave states Prompt war with Mexico

17. Texas is Admitted to the Union! Election of 1844 sparks a debate over westward expansion James K. Polk: favored annexation of Texas (he was a slaveholder) December 29, 1845: Texas became the 28th state in the Union Possibility of war looms: Mexican government recalled its ambassador from Washington, D.C.

19. WE WANT CALIFORNIA! President Polk offered to buy California from Mexico in 1845 Mexico refuses, causing American settlers, led by John C. Frémont, to seize the town of Sonoma in June 1846 Americans hoisted a flag featuring a grizzly bear, declaring independence from Mexico, and proclaimed the Republic of California Mexico gave way, leaving U.S. forces in control of California

20. Causes of the Mexican-American War The Americans: Americans incite revolutions in California and Texas U.S. President Polk urges war ? Polk believed war with Mexico would bring Texas, New Mexico, and California into the union ? Polk supported Texas’s territorial claim that its border extended to the Rio Grande River, not the Nueces River as Mexico claimed

21. Causes of the Mexican-American War The Americans (continued) Polk sent Spanish-speaking emissary to Mexico to purchase California & New Mexico and to gain approval of the Rio Grande as the Texas border

22. The Slidell Mission: Nov., 1845

23. Wilmot Proviso, 1846

24. Causes of the Mexican-American War The Americans: Mexico refuses to receive Slidell Polk issued orders to General Zachary Taylor? blockade Rio Grande River Polk orders Fremont to lead an exploration party through Mexico’s Alta California province (hoping to incite war) Manifest Destiny had launched the U.S. into its first war on foreign territory

25. Causes of the Mexican-American War The Mexicans: Sealed off its borders Suspended its constitution Slaughtered Texan forces at the Alamo Killed 9 Americans who crossed into the Mexican Alta California province Refused to negotiate with American emmisaries and refused to sell the U.S. California and Texas

26. The Mexican-American War (1846-1848)

32. Results of the Mexican War?

33. The Gadsden Purchase 1853? President Franklin Pierce authorizes emissary to Mexico, James Gadsden to buy more land from Mexico U.S. agrees to pay $10 million for the “Gadsden Purchase,” which was a piece of territory south of the Gila River. Gadsden Purchase established the current borders of the lower 48 states.

35. The California Gold Rush

36. GOLD! At Sutter’s Mill, 1848

37. “THE WAY THEY GO TO CALIFORNIA” –Cartoon lithograph by Nathaniel Currier

38. California Gold Rush, 1849

39. GOLD RUSH FEVER Migration to California skyrocketed from 400 in 1848 to 44,000 in 1850 The ‘forty-niners,’ prospectors who flocked to CA in 1849 to pan for gold ‘Gold Fever” caught onto the rest of the world? 49ers joined by people from Asia, South America, and Europe.

40. IMPACT OF GOLD FEVER San Francisco becomes a ‘pandemonium of a city’ because of its location as a supply center SF’s population exploded from 1,000 in 1848 to 35,000 in 1850 Ferrying business in SF flourished? ferrying of people, supplies, and ships clogged SF’s harbor

41. Gold Rush Brings Diversity By 1849? California’s population exceeded 100,000 Chinese largest immigrant group from overseas living in CA Free blacks traveled to CA and struck it rich By 1855? richest blacks in the nation living in California Mexicans constituted a large portion of the population Slaves? large slave population resided in CA until state constitution (drafted in 1849) outlawed slavery CA STATEHOOD DEBATE? pins northern and southern states against one another over the slavery debate. California wins statehood in 1850

42. Two Views of San Francisco, Early 1850s

43. Territorial Growth to 1853 & the closing of North America

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