Stems structure function
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Stems: STRUCTURE & FUNCTION. Workbook 23.3. Stem Structure & Function. 1. What are the three main functions of stems? Stems produce organs (leaves, flowers), hold leaves up to sun, and transport materials throughout plant

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Stems: STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

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Stems structure function

Stems:STRUCTURE & FUNCTION

Workbook 23.3


Stem structure function

Stem Structure & Function

1. What are the three main functions of stems?

Stems produce organs (leaves, flowers), hold leaves up to sun, and transport materials throughout plant

2. What is an example of a stem that conducts photosynthesis and stores water?

Desert cactus stem


Stems structure function

3. What is a node?

Where leaves are attached to the stem

4. What kind of plant tissue does a bud contain?

Apical meristem - area of rapidly dividing cells [GROWTH!]

5. What does a vascular bundle contain?

Xylem (carries water) and phloem (carries sugars)


Stem cross section notice how the vascular bundles are arranged

Stem cross-sectionNotice how the vascular bundles are arranged

VASCULAR BUNDLES

CORTEX

GROUND TISSUE

PITH

EPIDERMIS

DICOT STEM

(IN A RING)

MONOCOT STEM

(SCATTERED)


Compare contrast chart

COMPARE & CONTRAST CHART

IN MONOCOTS, VASCULAR BUNDLES ARE SCATTERED

IN DICOTS, VASCULAR BUNDLES ARE ARRANGED IN A RING

COMPOSED OF VASCULAR TISSUE, GROUND TISSUE, AND EPIDERMAL TISSUE

VASCULAR TISSUES ARE IN VASCULAR BUNDLES


Growth of stems true or false

Growth of Stems – True or False

8. Plants grow in a way that is the same as the way animals grow.

False – DIFFERENT FROM

9. The # of legs an animal will have is predetermined, but the # of branches a plant will have is not predetermined.

True

10. Primary growth of stems is the result of elongation of cells produced in the ground tissue

False – APICAL MERISTEM

11. The increasing thickness of stems and roots in dicots and gymnosperms is called new growth

False – SECONDARY

12. Secondary growth is common in monocots

False - RARE


Stems structure function

13. Dicots can grow to great heights because the increase in width supports the weight.

True

14. Vascular cambium forms between the xylem and phloem of the vascular bundles

True

15. In conifers and dicots, secondary growth takes place in stems and roots called vascular cambium and cork cambium

False - MERISTEMS

16. The inner layers of a stem are produced by cork cambium

False – OUTER COVERING

17. Stems become thicker because the cambium produces new layers of vascular tissue each year

True


Seconary growth width

SECONARY GROWTH (WIDTH)

SECONDARY PHLOEM

BARK

PRIMARY PHLOEM

WOOD

SECONDARY XYLEM

PRIMARY XYLEM


Stems structure function

SECONDARY

19. Most of what we call “wood” is made up of layers of xylem.

20. The dark wood that no longer conducts water is called .

21. The wood that is active in fluid transport is called .

22. The lighter wood in tree rings contains cells with thin cell walls compared with the cells in darker wood.

23. Alternating layers of light wood and dark wood are used to estimate a tree’s.

HEARTWOOD

SAPWOOD

LARGER

AGE


Formation of wood bark

FORMATION OF WOOD & BARK

BARK

WOOD

CORK

CORK CAMBIUM

HEARTWOOD

PHLOEM

VASCULAR CAMBIUM

SAPWOOD


Apply the big idea

Apply the Big Idea

  • “Girdling” is a term that refers to removing the bark of a tree in a complete ring around the trunk or a branch. Predict the effect that girdling will have on a tree.

    Girdling will eventually cause parts of the tree above the injury to die. Because…

  • Phloem vessels are cut, so no sugars/nutrients can travel up

  • Photosynthesis occurring in the leaves will not be able to send sugars to the roots for food

  • Cork cambium will be gone and unable to replace bark which prevents tree from losing water


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