Oils fats and waxes
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Oils, fats and waxes. Waxes: Composed by long Carbon and Hydrogen chains that are highly hidrophobic. They are saturated. Are found in: hair, insect skeletons, leaves, stems and beehives. FIGURE 3-12b Lipids. Bees build their homes with wax hexagons. . Phospholipids.

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Oils, fats and waxes

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Oils, fats and waxes

  • Waxes:

  • Composed by long Carbon and Hydrogen chains that are highly hidrophobic.

  • They are saturated.

  • Are found in: hair, insect skeletons, leaves, stems and beehives.


FIGURE 3-12bLipids. Bees build their homes with wax hexagons.


Phospholipids

- Are found in cell membranes.

Structure:

2 fatty acids + glycerol + phosphate group + 1 functional polar group


Columna vertebral de glicerol

Cabeza polar

(hidrofílica)

Colas de ácido graso

(hidrofóbica)

FIGURE 3-15 Phospholipids.


Phospholipids

  • They have hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions.

    • Polar “heads”: water soluble.

    • Non polar “tails”: not water soluble.

  • Hydrophilic = lipophobic

  • Hydrophobic = lipophilic


Steroids

  • They consist in 4 fusioned carbon rings.

  • Examples:

    • Cholesterol

      • Found in animal cell membranes.

    • Masculine and Femenine hormones.


Estrogen

Cholesterol

Testosterone


What are proteins?

Functions :

  • They are formed with amino acid chains.

  • Aminoacids join to form chains by dehydration synthesis.

  • A protein can have 1,2,3 or 4 structure levels.

  • Enzimes catalize (speed up or accelerate) reactions.

  • Elastin provides suport.


FIGURE 3-17aStructural proteins. Exaples: queratin, found in:

a) hair b) horns c) spider silk.


Proteins´s functions


Proteins

  • Proteins are composed of amino acids.

  • Aminoacids are proteins´s main units.

  • They all have amino and carboxyl groups.

  • They all have an “R” group:

    • Some are hydrophobic.

    • Some are hydrophilic.


“R” group

Amino

group

Carboxyl

group

Hydrogen

FIGURE 3-18 Amino acids structure.


FIGURE 3-19aAmino acid diversity.


Amino acids

  • The amino acid sequence determines the properties and functions of every protein.


Dehydration synthesis

  • Process by which amino acids join to form chains.

  • The covalent bond that is formed between the C and the N is called peptide bond.

  • The long amino acid chains are called polypeptides or proteins.


FIGURE 3-20 Protein synthesis.


4structure levels

The primary structure is the amino acid sequence that forms the protein.

The secondary structure is composed of helix and chains that fold.

The tertiary structure consists in one complex peptidic chain that holds the structure with different links.

The quaternary structure is found where several proteic chains link.


Structure example: hemoglobin.


Hydrogen Links

Folded plate

This folded plate is an example of the secondary proteic structure.


queratin

FIGURE 3-23Queratin structure.


Tridimensional structures

  • The kind, position and number of amino acids determine the protein´s function.

    • If bonds or links break, that causes the denaturing of the protein and lost of its biological functions.


FIGURE 3-24 Desoxyrribose nucleotide.


  • There are 2 kinds of nucleotides:

    • Ribose nucleotides:

    • The ones that contain: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracil. They are found in RNA.

    • Deoxyrribose nucleotides:

    • The ones that contain:Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine. They are found in DNA.


Inheritance molecules

  • DNA

    • It spells the genetic info necesary to build proteins.

  • RNA

    • Are DNA copies or replicas used at the protein synthesis.


base

sugar

phosphate

FIGURE 3-25 Nucleotide chain.


Hydrogen links


Other nucleotides

  • AMP carries chemical signals inside the cell.

    • ATP carries energy.

  • NAD+ and FAD carry electrons.


ATP


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