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University of Palestine Faculty of Applied Engineering & Urban Planning Dept. of Architecture, Interior Design & Planning. Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202) Lecturer 11 20 th Century Architecture (Part 4) Congress of International Architecture & Modernism (CIAM)

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Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202) Lecturer 11 20 th Century Architecture (Part 4)

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Theories of architecture eaps4202 lecturer 11 20 th century architecture part 4

University of Palestine

Faculty of Applied Engineering & Urban Planning

Dept. of Architecture, Interior Design & Planning

Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202)

Lecturer 11

20th Century Architecture (Part 4)

Congress of International Architecture & Modernism (CIAM)

Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 21.04.2009


Architectural attitudes in the 20 th century architecture

Architectural Attitudes in the 20th Century Architecture

  • First Generation

    Frank Lloyd Wright, Mies Van DerRohe, Walter Gropious & Le Corbusier

    Style of 1st Generation:

    - The refusal of adopting traditional architecture on the basis that old architecture did not suit the needs & desire of the users;

    - Seeking great effort to arrive at individual solutions (They left behind new ways of thinking & distinguished approaches without considering these as a style of architecture;

    - Buildings produced do much emphasize individualism & dictatorship; &

    - Approaches provided expresses each architect personal character

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 21.04.09


Architectural attitudes in the 20 th century architecture1

Architectural Attitudes in the 20th Century Architecture

  • The most important schools featuring the 1st generation are:

    1. Bau House

    2. CIAM Group

    3. Functional Theory

    4. Organic Theory

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 21.04.09


Ciam group

CIAM Group

  • Established in 1928 comprising 24 architects seeking the development of modern architecture & has its focus on residential development and urban planning

  • The Group has hold 10 meetings as follows;

    1. The first concentrated on economic & social aspects of Architecture

    2. The 2nd meeting revolved around affordable housing and the search for a better housing conditions

    3. The 3rd meeting held in Brussels discussing land use & the materials used for building construction

    4. The 4th meeting offered the Athena Summit in 1933 discussing the useful city where the city itself has been classified as: residential, working, entertainment & transport.

    5. The fifth meeting held in England was centered on the creation of natural atmosphere responding to human senses

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 21.04.09


Ciam group1

CIAM Group

6. The 6th & 7th meetings certified that Architecture culture has to teach design methods instead of developing skills

7. The 8th meeting held in London providing a report on city centre development

9. The 9th meeting was concerned with the principles of structural construction in line with development growth

10. The 10th meeting studies the relationship between physical shape of buildings & both the social needs & psychological effects.

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 21.04.09


Architectural attitudes in the 20 th century architecture2

Architectural Attitudes in the 20th Century Architecture

2. 2nd Generation

Largely influenced by ideas & thought of 1st generation despite the attempts of getting ride of such ideas.

The most important architects of 2nd generation:

Alvar A alto

Marcel Breuer

Louis Khan

Philip Johnson

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 21.04.09


Architectural attitudes in the 20 th century architecture 2 nd generation

Architectural Attitudes in the 20th Century Architecture: 2nd Generation

  • Alvar A alto

    His philosophy & Opinion:

    - Architecture should emphasize calmness, warmness & Harmony

    - His work was far from being abstract & from ornaments as well as from unnecessary additions

    The style adopted:

    - The use of wood in addition to stone (these 2 materials are the most common ones in Finland)

    - The use of concrete as an essential construction material saying that Architecture does not need smooth surface structure

    - The use of wood in the interior (stairs)

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 21.04.09


Architectural attitudes in the 20 th century architecture 2 nd generation1

Architectural Attitudes in the 20th Century Architecture: 2nd Generation

  • Alvar A alto

    His buildings:

1. Villa Mairea

2. Local Authority of Saynatsalo

3. The Library of Mont Anglo

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 21.04.09


Architectural attitudes in the 20 th century architecture 2 nd generation2

Architectural Attitudes in the 20th Century Architecture: 2nd Generation

  • Louis Khan

    His philosophy:

    - The design should largely emphasize the nature and the time where the design is born

    - Believed in the reinforced concrete as the only suitable material for building construction whereas the steel or iron are more suitable for ship construction

    - He says: If the distance between one column & another is more than 30 meters, then the interior space is inhuman losing much more than earning, as the space in between is lost.

    - tends to emphasize the verticality rather than horizontality

    - in favor of adopting the classical architecture

    - The use of clear and straight lines in the floor plans

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 21.04.09


Architectural attitudes in the 20 th century architecture 2 nd generation3

Architectural Attitudes in the 20th Century Architecture: 2nd Generation

  • Louis Khan

    The style adopted:

    - Giving the design a strength by the use of natural materials ( Concrete & red stone)

    - Clearness

    - No finishing materials used: the materials of concrete & stones were left as they are.

    - The use of glass

    - His attitude is: “ Building as it wants to be”

    - The emphasis in design is on the relationship between shape, social needs & psychological ones

    - The differentiation between service area (stair case, lifts, ramps, etc) and served area

    - Service area are constructed of concrete while served area is of Glass

    - Contrast in the design: hard/smooth, concrete/glass, low/high, etc

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 21.04.09


Architectural attitudes in the 20 th century architecture 2 nd generation4

Architectural Attitudes in the 20th Century Architecture: 2nd Generation

  • Louis Khan

    His building:

1. Laboratory clinics in Phyladilphia

2. Yale University of Art

3. Richard Medical Research Building

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 21.04.09


Architectural attitudes in the 20 th century architecture 2 nd generation5

Architectural Attitudes in the 20th Century Architecture: 2nd Generation

  • Marcel Breuer

    his philosophy: attention to details & very clear in expressing the design ideas.

    “A building is man made, acrystalic constructing thing, it should imitate natural, it should be contrast with natural”.

Buildings:

1. Geller House II

2. HUD Office in Washington

3. Australian Embassy, Paris

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 21.04.09


Architectural attitudes in the 20 th century architecture 3rd generation

Architectural Attitudes in the 20th Century Architecture: 3rd Generation

  • Its goal is to approach issues of architecture that has not been discussed by 1st & 2nd generations

  • Its motive was to develop the architecture of 21st century

  • Architects of 3rd generation refuse the idea of constant architecture that is inherited

  • New ideas emerged that are represented in:

    - the massive buildings (Mega Structure)

    - Capsule design & the theory of additive, substraction & replacement

    - The space city

    Archigram (London) & Metabolism (Japan)

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 21.04.09


Architectural attitudes in the 20 th century architecture 3rd generation archigram

Architectural Attitudes in the 20th Century Architecture: 3rd Generation (Archigram)

  • Archigram architects have had less options to spread out their ideas.

  • They focused their intention on the design of living city

  • Many were not in agreement with the Archigram style of architecture & consider it as an art. This was much in contrast to Metabolism, largely adopting the modern technology, encouraged by the Japanese government

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


Architectural attitudes in the 20 th century architecture 3rd generation archigram1

Architectural Attitudes in the 20th Century Architecture: 3rd Generation (Archigram)

  • Archigram architects:

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


Architectural attitudes in the 20 th century architecture 3rd generation archigram2

Architectural Attitudes in the 20th Century Architecture: 3rd Generation (Archigram)

  • Major projects:

Plug in city (1966) by Peter Cook

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


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