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Outline. I: IntroductionII:Development of emotion respondingIII: Development of emotional appraisalIV: Individual differences. I: Introduction. . I: Introduction. Philosophers view emotions skeptically.Plato: emotions are like drugs -- corrupt reasonStoics: emotions need to be moderatedDarwin: emotions like fossils -- vestiges of prior adaptations that are no longer useful.
The development of emotions

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1. The development of emotions

2. Outline I: Introduction II: Development of emotion responding III: Development of emotional appraisal IV: Individual differences

3. I: Introduction

4. I: Introduction Philosophers view emotions skeptically. Plato: emotions are like drugs -- corrupt reason Stoics: emotions need to be moderated Darwin: emotions like fossils -- vestiges of prior adaptations that are no longer useful

5. Emotions: A modern view The case of Phineas Gage. Brain injury disrupted his emotions, making a reasoned existence impossible. Emotions now viewed as central to healthy social and cognitive functioning

6. What is an emotion? An emotions is an: Automatic, patterned response to an event that includes? Behavioural-facial expressions and Conscious appraisal of the eliciting event.

10. What is an emotion? An emotions is an: Automatic, patterned response to an event that includes? Behavioural-facial expressions and Conscious appraisal of the eliciting event.

11. Language suggests we experience a variety of distinct emotions. Are there distinct patterns associated with different emotions? If so, are there some innate patterns? II: Development of emotional responses

12. Language suggests we experience a variety of distinct emotions. Are there distinct patterns associated with different emotions? YES If so, are there some innate patterns? YES II: Development of emotional responses

13. II: Development of emotional responses

14. Basic emotions like sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, happiness are innate and universal. Evidence? II: Development of emotional responses

15. Methods II: Development of emotional responses

16. Methods II: Development of emotional responses

17. Methods II: Development of emotional responses

18. Methods ? Cross-cultural studies II: Development of emotional responses

19. Methods ? Cross-cultural studies II: Development of emotional responses

20. Methods ? Developmental studies II: Development of emotional responses

21. Methods ? Developmental studies Disgust & Happiness II: Development of emotional responses

22. Methods ? Developmental studies Disgust & Happiness II: Development of emotional responses

23. Methods ? Developmental studies Disgust & Happiness II: Development of emotional responses

24. Methods ? Developmental studies Disgust & Happiness II: Development of emotional responses

25. Methods ? Developmental studies Disgust & Happiness II: Development of emotional responses

26. Criticisms: Is emotional expression enough? Saarni & Campos: Need to examine whether emotions are expressed meaningfully in appropriate contexts. II: Development of emotional responses

27. Emphasis on the functional development of emotion ? Do infants express emotions in functionally appropriate ways? If this more stringent criteria is adopted, newborn don?t seem as well-organized. II: Development of emotional responses

28. Hiatt, Campos, and Emde, 1979 10 to 12 month olds placed in contexts thought to elicit 3 different basic emotions. Happiness: playing with an attractive toy. Fear: exposure to a stranger. Surprise: object disappearance/appearance. II: Development of emotional responses

29. 2 conditions for discrete emotions (1) The predicted expression must occur more often than any non-predicted emotion in response to a particular context. (2) The predicted expression must be displayed more often in its? appropriate eliciting circumstance than in non-predicted circumstances.

30. Design & research questions.

31. Findings For happiness, both conditions were met.

32. Findings for happiness.

33. Findings for fear Stimuli meant to elicit fear elicited significantly more non-fear emotions

34. Findings for fear.

35. Findings for surprise. Stimuli thought to elicit surprise did elicit surprise more often than non-predicted emotion. However, surprise elicited as often by fearful and happy contexts.

36. Findings for surprise

37. Findings summarized.

38. Conclusions Infants may be born with the elements of emotional expression. However, it is only in the course of development that the elements become functionally organized. If the elements of emotion need to be organized, what brings about this organization?

39. 1. Understanding intentions Izard Externality of causation and emotional response to inoculation. Young infants exhibit sadness and distress. Older infants exhibit anger and distress. Understand that something unpleasant is happening to them rather than just happening.

40. 2. Development of the self Self-recognition @ 24 months. Leads to self-conscious emotions including pride, guilt, and embarrassment.

41. 3. Emotion Regulation Emerges in infancy ?e.g., self-distraction Predicts compliance @ 3yrs Later in development, is associated with social competence ? Cole, Zahn-Waxler, & Smith, 1994 Induced negative emotion in high, medium, and low-risk boys and girls Experimenter either present or absent

44. III: Development of emotional appraisal Infants born capable of some basic appraisal However, much about the emotional significance of things needs to be learned Ambiguity Inborn ?affective map? needs elaboration How does this happen?

45. Social Referencing Sorce, Emde, Campos, Klinnert, 1981. Visual-cliff If mothers express fear, infants do not cross When mothers smile, most infants cross Infants internalize caregivers? affective map

46. IV: Individual differences Temperament Refers to a variety of infant attributes including: Fearfulness Irritability Activity level Concerns the "how" as opposed to the "what" of behaviour.

47. A biological basis for temperament? Many argue yes. Evidence? Heritability studies. Cross-temporal stability.

48. 1. Heritability studies MZ vs. DZ twins. Higher concordance amongst MZ vs. DZ twins for social smiling and fearfulness. Moderate heritability.

49. 2. Temporal stability Kagan Behavioural inhibition: Fear responses to novel situations and people Children studied longitudinally Measured at 21 months, 4, 6, & 8 years. Evidence of stability

50. 3. Correlated traits Behavioural and emotional characteristics seem to co-occur Over-active children are often low in fearfulness. Under-active children often moody, resistant to change.

51. 3 categories of child temperament Thomas & Chess, 1991 Easy temperament (good mood, flexible, regular): 60% of infants. Difficult temperament (active, inflexible, and irritable): 15% of infants Slow-to-warm-up (quiet, moody, passive resistance to change): 23% of infants

52. Summarizing temperament Temperament concerns the ?how? rather than the ?what? of behaviour. Biologically derived. Described in terms of both attributes and broader profiles.

53. Summarizing emotional development Emotions are complex and multifaceted. Structural and functional considerations. Infants born with some basic emotions. Cognitive, social and language development transforms our emotional nature. Emotions become more differentiated and controlled.

54. The Development of Social Attachments

55. Outline I: Stages of attachment II: Formation of Attachments III: Attachment Theory IV: Attachment and Temperament

56. I: Stages of attachment (p. 402) Pre-attachment (0-2 months) Attachment in the making (2-7 months) Clear-cut attachments (7-36 months) Reciprocal partnership (36 months onward)

57. II: The formation of attachments

58. Psychoanalytic theory: Freud Psychosexual personality theory For infants, libidinal pleasure orally derived Feeding provides oral stimulation Leads to attachment

59. Social-Learning Theory Primary and secondary drives Mother associated w. positive reinforcement Satisfaction of primary drives. Eventually, simply the presence of the mother becomes reinforcing Development of a secondary drive.

60. Is feeding important? Harry Harlow Too much emphasis on feeding. Research on rhesus monkeys. Orphans prefer terry-cloth not feeding mother.

61. III: Attachment Theory John Bowlby Critical of psychoanalytic and S-L theory Proposed an ?Ethological Theory? Attachment is a "behavioural system? that has evolved over millions of years What is a behavioural system?

62. III: Attachment Theory A behavioural system is an organized set of behaviours that is goal-directed, activated by particular eliciting circumstances, and turned off when goal attained. Example: Feeding And (according to Bowlby) attachment ? How?

63. III: Attachment Theory Comprised of a set of behaviours (e.g., crying, distress, following, clinging, calling, etc.) Goal-directed (i.e., maintain proximity with caregiver). Turned on by eliciting circumstances (i.e., separation, danger) Turned off when goal attained (i.e., proximity with mother)

64. The internal working model Around 12 months, infants begins to form a model of the relationship they have with their care-giver. Timing coincides with developing understanding of object permanence. Includes a concept of the self, the caregiver, and the relationship. Forms a template that guides the establishment of future attachment relationships.

65. Measuring attachment Ainsworth: The Strange Situation (p. 405). Assessed the extent to which infants use mother as a secure base. Focus on reunion episodes. How does the infant utilize mother to re-establish a feeling of security?

66. Four attachment classifications Secure; 65% Settle quickly upon reunion. Avoidant; 20% Avoids contact with mother upon reunion. Resistant; 10% Fails to settle after reunion. Disorganized; 5% No clear reunion strategy.

67. These categories describe 2 dimensions

68. These categories describe 2 dimensions

69. Factors affecting the quality of attachment Behaviour of principle care-giver (Nurture) Ainsworth?s care-giving hypothesis. Evidence?

70. Ainsworth?s Baltimore study

71. Ainsworth?s Baltimore study (A) sensitive. (B) accepting of their role as mother (C) co-operative (D) emotionally accessible

72. Ainsworth?s Baltimore study (A) misinterpret infant signals (B) inconsistent

73. Ainsworth?s Baltimore study (A) impatient with their babies (B) unresponsive (C) do not enjoy close contact (D) express negative feeling about their infants.

74. Sensitivity hypothesis: Further evidence Meta-analysis: De Wolff & van IJzendoorn, 1997 Question: Is maternal sensitivity associated with infant attachment status? 66 studies reviewed All had examined parental antecedents of security. Association confirmed but weak relationship.

75. Criticisms Thompson (1997) Hypothesis not very precise. Parents play many roles in relationships. Sensitivity to what? Why does sensitivity promote secure attachment?

76. Other maternal predictors Being affectionate, non-intrusive (Bates et al.) Negativity, tension (Moss et al.) Interactive synchrony (Isabella et al.)

77. IV: Attachment and temperament. Attachment theory maintains that strange situation behaviour reflects the quality of the infant?s caregiving But, might strange situation behaviour simply reflect differences in temperament? Some argue yes. Evidence?

80. Conclusions Suggests that strange-situation behaviour indexes biologically-based differences in emotionality, not care-giving.

81. Criticisms Temperament is dispositional Cross-situationally and cross-temporally stable. Higher concordance for MZ than DZ twins True of attachment?

82. Criticisms Temperament is dispositional Cross-situationally and cross-temporally stable. Higher concordance for MZ than DZ twins True of attachment?

83. Criticisms Temperament is dispositional Cross-situationally and cross-temporally stable. Higher concordance for MZ than DZ twins True of attachment?

84. Criticisms Temperament is dispositional Cross-situationally and cross-temporally stable. Higher concordance for MZ than DZ twins True of attachment?

85. Conclusions Biological and care-giving factors contribute to the establishment of attachment.

86. Summary In the course of the 1st year, infant form their first relationships. Emotions are an important foundation for the formation of attachment.


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