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Global Best Practices in Safety PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Global Best Practices in Safety. Contents. Why do we need Safety and Risk management? Companies benefitted from Chilworth experience. Some major disasters Hazard control, how? Global practices for Safety and Risk Management Project stages and Risk management Food for thought. Questions?.

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Global Best Practices in Safety


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Contents

  • Why do we need Safety and Risk management?

  • Companies benefitted from Chilworth experience.

  • Some major disasters

  • Hazard control, how?

  • Global practices for Safety and Risk Management

  • Project stages and Risk management

  • Food for thought.

  • Questions?


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Why Do we need Safety?

  • Don’t wait for a major accident to identify need to improve major hazard management.

  • Need to learn lessons from accidents (Hindsight) but don’t rely on this approach

  • Manage risks via Foresight rather than Hindsight ie be proactive rather than reactive.


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Our Clients

  • Wide spectrum of Industrial Sectors…..

  • Pharmaceuticals

  • Petrochemicals

  • Oil & Gas

  • Refinery

  • Agrochemicals

  • Specialty Chemicals

  • Textiles

  • Fertilizers

  • Paint & Coatings

  • Engineering

  • Building (Hotels, Hospitals, Corporate)


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Our Clients

“More than 800 valued clients world over…..”

“More than 200 valued clients in India…..”

“Many of them Fortune 500 Companies…..”


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BP Texas Refinery

  • BP AMOCO Refinery is on 1,200 acres with 30 refinery units and is 71 years old.

  • 1800 people work at the refinery plus contractors

  • It is BP’s largest plant, and the USA’s third largest refinery, processing 460,000 barrels of crude oil/day, around 3% of US gasolene supplies


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BP Texas Refinery – The Aftermath


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Bruncefield, UK


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Piper Alpha


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Piper Alpha – After the fire


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It cant happen to us!!!

Texas City Explosion – 23 March 2005

  • Direct Root Cause: Level Indicator Failure and High Level Alarm failure

    Buncefield UK Explosion – 11December 2005

  • Direct Root Cause: Level Indicator Failure and High Level Alarm failure


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Hazard Controls

  • Mitigation Controls

    • Ignition Prevention

    • Alarms and Procedures

    • Mitigation

    • Emergency Response

    • Prevention of “Escalation to other vessel”

  • Prevention Controls

    • Elimination

    • Substitution

    • Engineering

    • Alarms & Procedures

    • Passive Devices

    • Prevention of “Escalation from other incident”


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COMMUNITY EMERGENCY RESPONSE

PLANT EMERGENCY RESPONSE

Emergency Scenario

Training

MITIGATION SYSTEM

FireProtection

PSV’s

SIS

RBI

PREVENTION SYSTEM

BPCS

Process

Alarms

Operations

Supervision

PROCESS DESIGN

PROCESS

Operating vs Design Verification

Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA)


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HAZID

  • Hazard identification at various stages of project

  • Brainstorming with the use of guidewords

  • Prompt study team members to identify hazards

  • HAZID typically focuses on plant layout drawing, as it

  • aims to identify intrinsic hazards.

  • HAZID is useful at an early stages of a new design so that

  • all potential hazards can be taken into account.

  • HAZID is also the technique of choice for identifying

  • hazards as the first stages of demonstration of ALARP.


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HAZOP

  • The basic premise of HAZOPS is:

    All hazardous material incidents are instigated by a deviation from the desired operating state or condition.

  • If we can predict all deviations and analyze them before we operate a new process then we can head off the undesired consequences.

    Forewarned is Forearmed


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System description

Hazard identification

Scenario identification

Accident

probability

Accident

consequences

Risk determination

risk &

hazard

acceptable

?

N

Modify design

Y

Accept system

Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA)

HAZARD IDENTIFICATION METHODS:

- Process hazard checklist

- Hazard survey: DOW index

- HAZOP hazard & operability study

- Safety review

RISK ASSESSMENT:

- What can go wrong & how ?

- What are the chances ?

- Consequences ?

EXTREMES

- Low probability

- Minimal consequences


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Safety Integrity Level (SIL)

  • Safety Integrity Level (SIL) is a statistical representation of SIS when demand occurs.

  • But in its simplest form it assesses:

    • How high is your risk of an “undesired event” ?

    • What level of protection do you need?

    • Do you have the required level of protection in your design?

  • Typical Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS):

    • ESD

    • F&G Detection System

    • Blowdown System


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Escape, Evacuation & Rescue Analysis (EERA)

EERA comprises following two elements, with their objectives:

  • A goal analysis – The objective of the goal analysis is to confirm the adequacy of the EER facilities and arrangements, and identify any areas of weakness.

  • An evacuation time analysis – The objective of the evacuation analysis is to assess if the muster area and evacuation facilities are able to endure local fire events for the period required for the POB to evacuate.


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EERA Goals

There are seven (7) EERA goals which will be assessed in the EERA report and these goals are listed as below:

  • Goal 1 (Alarm);

  • Goal 2 (Escape);

  • Goal 3 (Muster);

  • Goal 4 (Decision to Evacuate);

  • Goal 5 (Primary Means of Evacuation);

  • Goal 6 (Secondary Means of Evacuation); and

  • Goal 7 (Rescue)


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Emergency Systems Survivability Analysis (ESSA)

  • To assess criticality of emergency systems

  • To determine if emergency system sub-components are fail-safe;

  • To determine whether emergency system sub-components are vulnerable to fire and explosion events;

  • To determine whether emergency system sub-components have redundancy; and

  • To recommend risk reduction measures to increase the survivability of emergency systems, which are vulnerable to Major Accident Events, and are neither fail-safe nor have redundancy.


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Safety Management System (SMS)

  • The SMS - identify, select, define, implement, monitor, maintain, review and improve the range of control measures

  • Errors, deviations and breakdowns in control measures and corresponding parts of the SMS are tracked

  • Performance standards must be used to facilitate this process.

  • Consistent with safety culture, company’s overall business management system


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Behaviour Based Safety (BBS)

  • BBS is a process approach to improving safety performance by helping workgroup to,

    • Identify safety-related behaviours that are critical to performance

    • Gather data on workgroup safety excellence

    • Provide ongoing, two-way performance feedback

    • Remove safety barriers to continuous improvement


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BBS - Risk Perception

  • Why are people unimpressed by safety risks?

    • Risk taking – a matter of choice

    • Familiarity breeds complacency

    • We get what we deserve – work place injuries are fair

    • Risky work practices are accepted and becomes the NORM


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Behaviour Safety is based on:

  • Finding out what people are doing that leads to incidents and stopping them doing it. Or…

  • Finding out what people are doing to avoid incidents and getting everyone to do it

  • Behaviour (unlike attitude) is visible, measurable and can be directly influenced


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Safety at various Stages

  • Planning Stage

  • Design stage

  • Construction

  • Pre commissioning / Commissioning

  • Operations stage

  • Decommissioning and abandonment.


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Planning Stage

Prevention of accidents should be the goal:

  • Design options (use of chemicals, technology etc)

  • Layout review (various locations and configurations)

  • Project HSE Review (PHSER)

  • Hazard Identification (HAZID)

  • Risk Register


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Design Stage

Adequate Design suitable for operations:

  • HAZID (Hazard Identification)

  • HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Study)

  • QRA (Quantitative Risk Assessment)

  • SIL (Safety Integrity Level)

  • SCE/PS (Safety Critical Elements / Performance Standards)

  • Dispersion

  • EERA (Escape, Evacuation and Rescue Analysis)

  • ESSA (Emergency Systems Survivability analysis)


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Design Stage (continued)

  • Project HSE Review (PHSER)

  • ALARP

  • RAM

  • Safety Case / COMAH

  • Fire Water network

  • Fire Fighting System and extinguishers

  • Emergency Response Plan

  • Risk Register


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Construction / Commissioning Stage

Safe Construction / commissioning and fit for operation:

  • HAZID

  • HAZOP (update, as built)

  • Construction Safety

  • Subcontractor Safety

  • Transport Safety

  • Project HSE Review (PHSER)

  • Constructability Study

  • Risk Register

  • BBS


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Operations Stage

Safe operation with no incidents:

  • Risk Based Inspection (RBI)

  • Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM)

  • Subcontractor Safety

  • Transport Safety

  • Risk Register

  • SCE/PS update

  • Operations Safety Case

  • Safety / PSM / SMS Audits

  • BBS


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Decommissioning / Abandonment Stage

Safe abandonment and disposal:

  • HAZID

  • QRA

  • Project HSE Review (PHSER)

  • Risk Register


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Food for thought

To protect against major accidents and consequential losses, there are generally considered to be three layers (or types) of protection:

Decreasing Reliability of Protection

Behaviours have a key role in improving Asset Integrity

Both Personal Safety and Asset Integrity Safety issues can be

addressed through BBS


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Questions??

Contact

Jitendra Kumar, Vice President

+91 9811340933 [email protected]

CHILWORTH TECHNOLOGY P. LTD.

Muskaan Complex, B-2, Plot No. 3,

Vasant Kunj, New Delhi - 110070

Tel: + 91 11 26136979; Fax +91 11 26135979

www.chilworth.co.in


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