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Notes: Life and the Cell. Name _____________________________ Date ____________ Period _____. Organisms. Organism – any living thing In order to be considered an organism (living thing) it must: Be made up of cells Use energy Adapt to surroundings React to changes

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Notes: Life and the Cell

Name _____________________________

Date ____________

Period _____

organisms
Organisms
  • Organism – any living thing
  • In order to be considered an organism (living thing) it must:
    • Be made up of cells
    • Use energy
    • Adapt to surroundings
    • React to changes
    • Change, develop, or grow
    • Produce more organisms
6 characteristics described
6 Characteristics Described…
  • Be Made up of Cells
    • Cell– building block of living things
    • Some organisms have one cell(unicellular), some organisms have many cells(multicellular)
  • Use Energy
    • Organisms use energy for life processes
    • Energy – the ability to do work
  • Adapt to Surroundings
    • Organisms are suited for living in their environment
    • Adaptation – change that increases an organism’s chance for survival
6 characteristics described1
6 Characteristics Described…
  • React to Changes
    • Response – any reaction to a change
    • Stimulus – change that causes a response
    • Behavior – way in which an organism responds to stimuli
    • Homeostasis – the keeping of an organism’s body stable in a changing environment
      • Organisms can respond to changing conditions in their environment in order to keep their body’s conditions stable
      • Thermoregulation – keeping body’s temperature constant
      • Oxygen regulation– keeping oxygen levels constant
6 characteristics described2
6 Characteristics Described…
  • Change or Develop or Grow
    • Organisms grow
    • Organisms change in appearance
  • Produce More Organisms
    • Reproduction – process by which organisms produce more organisms
    • Offspring – the new organism that is produced
needs of organisms
Needs of Organisms
  • In order to stay alive, all organisms require 5 things. They compete for these things in order to stay alive. These are:
    • Energy
      • Autotroph – organism that makes its own food
      • Heterotroph – organism that cannot make its own food; must consume food to survive
    • Water
    • Air– can be oxygen or carbon dioxide
    • Temperature – all organisms have a preferred temp
    • Living space– must provide all of the needs of an organism
where do organisms come from
Where do organisms come from?
  • Early scientists thought that spontaneous generation occurred
    • Spontaneous Generation– the idea that living things come from nonliving things
      • Examples – mice came from bales of hay
    • In the 1600’s most peoplebelieved this to be true
  • Two scientists disproved this
    • FrancesoRedi– proved that animals come from other animals; they reproduce
    • Louis Pasteur– proved that microorganisms (like bacteria) reproduce as well
living things come from other living things
Living things come from other living things!
  • Reproduction – the process by which organisms produce new organisms
  • Offspring – new organism produced by a living thing
  • Types of Reproduction –
    • Asexual Reproduction – reproduction needing only oneparent
      • Bacteria and other one-celled organisms reproduce this way
    • Sexual Reproduction – reproduction needing two parents
      • Animals, plants, and other multi-celled organisms reproduce this way
asexual reproduction
Asexual Reproduction

Fission

Budding

  • There are two typesof asexual reproduction:
    • Fission – new organisms are produced when a parent splits in two equal halves
    • Budding – the growth of a new organism from the parent organism
  • In asexual reproduction the offspring is identical to the parent
sexual reproduction
Sexual Reproduction

In sexual reproduction cells from two parents join and a new organism develops from the joined cells

The offspring has features of both parents

living things are made of cells
Living things are made of cells.

Animal Cell:

Plant Cell:

  • Cell – the basic unit of structure and function in living things
    • A cell is a building block for life
    • All living things are made of cells (either one or many)
discovery of cells
Discovery of Cells:
  • Robert Hooke – He observed cork under a microscope and saw small boxes or “cells”
  • Anton von Leeuwenhoek – he was the first person to see living cells while looking at a drop of waterunder a microscope
  • Based on their and others’ observations, the cell theory was developed
  • Cell Theory:
    • All living things are made up of one or more cells
    • Cells carry out all life processes
    • Cells come only from other living cells
types of cells
Types of Cells
  • All cells can be divided into two basic groupsbased on their characteristics
    • Eukaryotic Cells:
      • The genetic material is in the nucleus
      • There are organelles
      • Found in all multi-cellular (plants, animals, fungi) and a few unicellular organisms (fungi, protista)
    • Prokaryotic Cells:
      • There are NO organelles
      • The genetic material is in the cytoplasm (there is NO nucleus)
      • Found in most unicellular organisms (bacteria & archaea)
parts of a eukaryotic cell
Parts of a Eukaryotic Cell:
  • Cell Membrane – a protective covering that encloses the entire cell; it acts as a boundary between cells
    • Part of the factory: security
  • Cytoplasm – gel-like fluid within the cell; most of the work of the cell is carried out here
    • Part of the factory: factory floor
  • Organelle – a small structure within the cell that has a specific jobin the cell
organelles of the cell page 1
Organelles of the Cell – Page 1

Nucleus

  • Nucleus – Control center of the cell; contains DNA
    • Part of the factory – boss
    • The nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear membraneand has a nucleolus inside of it
      • Nuclear Membrane– the thin structure that surrounds and protects the nucleus
      • Nucleolus – the small structure inside the nucleus that makesribosomes
organelles of the cell page 2
Organelles of the Cell – Page 2

Ribosome

EndoplasmicReticulum

  • Endoplasmic Reticulum – Small network of tubes that substances move along; connected to the nucleus
    • Part of the factory – Assembly Line
    • Rough ER– has ribosomes on it
    • Smooth ER– does NOT have ribosomes on it
  • Ribosome – small, round structure that makes protein
    • Part of the factory – Production
organelles of the cell page 3
Organelles of the Cell – Page 3
  • Golgi Apparatus– Packages and sends materials to other parts of and out of the cell
    • Part of the factory – Packaging / Shipping
  • Lysosome – Small round structure that breaks down nutrients and old cell parts (animal cells only)
    • Part of the factory - Custodian
organelles of the cell page 4
Organelles of the Cell – Page 4

Chloroplast

Mitochondrion

  • Chloroplast – takes in sunlight to make sugar (food) through the process of photosynthesis
    • Found only in plant cells
    • Chlorophyll – substance inside the chloroplast that absorbs sunlight
  • Mitochondria – use food and oxygen to make energy for the cell through the process of cellular respiration
    • Part of the factory – Power Plant
organelles of the cell page 5
Organelles of the Cell – Page 5

Vacuole

CellWall

Vacuole

  • Vacuole – sac that stores water, food, and waste
    • Part of the factory – Storage
    • Plant Cells – have one large, central vacuole
    • Animal Cells – have many small vacuoles
  • Cell Wall – thick outer layer that surrounds the cell membranes of plant cells; provides support to the plant
    • Part of the factory - Walls
cell processes
Cell Processes
  • All cells undergo processes in order to stay alive
    • They take in materials, release materials, and transport materials throughout their cell
      • They do this through the processes of passive transportand active transport
    • They obtain energy and use energy
      • They do this through the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration
materials move across membranes
Materials Move Across Membranes

Diffusion

Osmosis

  • Passive Transport – the movement of materials across a cell membrane without the use of energy
    • Diffusion – process by which molecules spread out, or move from areas of where there are many of them to where there are fewer of them
      • Molecules move from higher to lower concentration
    • Osmosis – the diffusion of wateracross a membrane
materials move across membranes cont
Materials Move Across Membranes Cont…

Exocytosis

Endocytosis

  • Active Transport– Process of using energy to move materials across a membrane
    • Endocytosis – material is captured in a pocket of the membrane and moved into the cell
    • Exocytosis – a pocket in the cell fuses with the membrane and releases material out of the cell
all cells need energy to survive
All Cells Need Energy to Survive
  • Cells get all of their energy from the sugar molecule glucose
  • Autotroph – an organism that makes its own food; also called a producer
    • Examples – plants, algae, phytoplankton
  • Heterotroph – organism that must consume food to get energy; also called a consumer; it cannot makeits own food
    • Examples – animals, fungi
autotrophs get food from light
Autotrophs Get Food from Light
  • PhotosynthesisReaction:
  • Water + Carbon Dioxide + Light Energy  Glucose + Oxygen
  • Photosynthesis – process that plants and other autotrophs use to turn the energy from light into chemical energy in the form of glucose
    • Occurs in chloroplasts
    • Chlorophyll – light-absorbing pigment that traps energy from the sun; found in chloroplasts
all cells get energy from glucose
All Cells Get Energy from Glucose
  • CellularRespiration – process through which cells use oxygen to releaseenergy stored in glucose
    • Occurs in the mitochondria
    • CellularRespirationReaction:

Glucose + Oxygen  Chemical Energy + Water + Carbon Dioxide

  • Fermentation – process through which cells release energy stored in glucose withoutoxygen
cells work together in multicellular organisms
Cells Work Together in Multicellular Organisms
  • All multicellularorganisms begin life as a single, fertilized egg cell
    • As cells divide through asexual reproduction, the specialize to perform specific jobs
    • Example – muscle cells, skin cells, brain cells
  • Specialized cells will worktogether and become increasingly organized:
    • Similar cells join to form tissues
    • Similar tissues join to form organs
    • Similar organs work together to form organsystems
    • Organsystems work together to form organisms
  • Cells Tissues  Organs  Organsystems  Organisms
notes reflection responses
Notes Reflection Responses

In 5 lines name and describe the six characteristics of organisms.

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

In 5 lines describe how prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are different. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

notes reflection responses1
Notes Reflection Responses

In 5 lines name and define 3 organelles of a cell.

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

In 5 lines describe how cells in a multicellular organism work together. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

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