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Notes: Life and the Cell. Name _____________________________ Date ____________ Period _____. Organisms. Organism – any living thing In order to be considered an organism (living thing) it must: Be made up of cells Use energy Adapt to surroundings React to changes

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Notes: Life and the Cell

Name _____________________________

Date ____________

Period _____


Organisms
Organisms

  • Organism – any living thing

  • In order to be considered an organism (living thing) it must:

    • Be made up of cells

    • Use energy

    • Adapt to surroundings

    • React to changes

    • Change, develop, or grow

    • Produce more organisms


6 characteristics described
6 Characteristics Described…

  • Be Made up of Cells

    • Cell– building block of living things

    • Some organisms have one cell(unicellular), some organisms have many cells(multicellular)

  • Use Energy

    • Organisms use energy for life processes

    • Energy – the ability to do work

  • Adapt to Surroundings

    • Organisms are suited for living in their environment

    • Adaptation – change that increases an organism’s chance for survival


6 characteristics described1
6 Characteristics Described…

  • React to Changes

    • Response – any reaction to a change

    • Stimulus – change that causes a response

    • Behavior – way in which an organism responds to stimuli

    • Homeostasis – the keeping of an organism’s body stable in a changing environment

      • Organisms can respond to changing conditions in their environment in order to keep their body’s conditions stable

      • Thermoregulation – keeping body’s temperature constant

      • Oxygen regulation– keeping oxygen levels constant


6 characteristics described2
6 Characteristics Described…

  • Change or Develop or Grow

    • Organisms grow

    • Organisms change in appearance

  • Produce More Organisms

    • Reproduction – process by which organisms produce more organisms

    • Offspring – the new organism that is produced


Needs of organisms
Needs of Organisms

  • In order to stay alive, all organisms require 5 things. They compete for these things in order to stay alive. These are:

    • Energy

      • Autotroph – organism that makes its own food

      • Heterotroph – organism that cannot make its own food; must consume food to survive

    • Water

    • Air– can be oxygen or carbon dioxide

    • Temperature – all organisms have a preferred temp

    • Living space– must provide all of the needs of an organism


Where do organisms come from
Where do organisms come from?

  • Early scientists thought that spontaneous generation occurred

    • Spontaneous Generation– the idea that living things come from nonliving things

      • Examples – mice came from bales of hay

    • In the 1600’s most peoplebelieved this to be true

  • Two scientists disproved this

    • FrancesoRedi– proved that animals come from other animals; they reproduce

    • Louis Pasteur– proved that microorganisms (like bacteria) reproduce as well


Living things come from other living things
Living things come from other living things!

  • Reproduction – the process by which organisms produce new organisms

  • Offspring – new organism produced by a living thing

  • Types of Reproduction –

    • Asexual Reproduction – reproduction needing only oneparent

      • Bacteria and other one-celled organisms reproduce this way

    • Sexual Reproduction – reproduction needing two parents

      • Animals, plants, and other multi-celled organisms reproduce this way


Asexual reproduction
Asexual Reproduction

Fission

Budding

  • There are two typesof asexual reproduction:

    • Fission – new organisms are produced when a parent splits in two equal halves

    • Budding – the growth of a new organism from the parent organism

  • In asexual reproduction the offspring is identical to the parent


Sexual reproduction
Sexual Reproduction

In sexual reproduction cells from two parents join and a new organism develops from the joined cells

The offspring has features of both parents


Living things are made of cells
Living things are made of cells.

Animal Cell:

Plant Cell:

  • Cell – the basic unit of structure and function in living things

    • A cell is a building block for life

    • All living things are made of cells (either one or many)


Discovery of cells
Discovery of Cells:

  • Robert Hooke – He observed cork under a microscope and saw small boxes or “cells”

  • Anton von Leeuwenhoek – he was the first person to see living cells while looking at a drop of waterunder a microscope

  • Based on their and others’ observations, the cell theory was developed

  • Cell Theory:

    • All living things are made up of one or more cells

    • Cells carry out all life processes

    • Cells come only from other living cells


Types of cells
Types of Cells

  • All cells can be divided into two basic groupsbased on their characteristics

    • Eukaryotic Cells:

      • The genetic material is in the nucleus

      • There are organelles

      • Found in all multi-cellular (plants, animals, fungi) and a few unicellular organisms (fungi, protista)

    • Prokaryotic Cells:

      • There are NO organelles

      • The genetic material is in the cytoplasm (there is NO nucleus)

      • Found in most unicellular organisms (bacteria & archaea)


Parts of a eukaryotic cell
Parts of a Eukaryotic Cell:

  • Cell Membrane – a protective covering that encloses the entire cell; it acts as a boundary between cells

    • Part of the factory: security

  • Cytoplasm – gel-like fluid within the cell; most of the work of the cell is carried out here

    • Part of the factory: factory floor

  • Organelle – a small structure within the cell that has a specific jobin the cell


Organelles of the cell page 1
Organelles of the Cell – Page 1

Nucleus

  • Nucleus – Control center of the cell; contains DNA

    • Part of the factory – boss

    • The nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear membraneand has a nucleolus inside of it

      • Nuclear Membrane– the thin structure that surrounds and protects the nucleus

      • Nucleolus – the small structure inside the nucleus that makesribosomes


Organelles of the cell page 2
Organelles of the Cell – Page 2

Ribosome

EndoplasmicReticulum

  • Endoplasmic Reticulum – Small network of tubes that substances move along; connected to the nucleus

    • Part of the factory – Assembly Line

    • Rough ER– has ribosomes on it

    • Smooth ER– does NOT have ribosomes on it

  • Ribosome – small, round structure that makes protein

    • Part of the factory – Production


Organelles of the cell page 3
Organelles of the Cell – Page 3

  • Golgi Apparatus– Packages and sends materials to other parts of and out of the cell

    • Part of the factory – Packaging / Shipping

  • Lysosome – Small round structure that breaks down nutrients and old cell parts (animal cells only)

    • Part of the factory - Custodian


Organelles of the cell page 4
Organelles of the Cell – Page 4

Chloroplast

Mitochondrion

  • Chloroplast – takes in sunlight to make sugar (food) through the process of photosynthesis

    • Found only in plant cells

    • Chlorophyll – substance inside the chloroplast that absorbs sunlight

  • Mitochondria – use food and oxygen to make energy for the cell through the process of cellular respiration

    • Part of the factory – Power Plant


Organelles of the cell page 5
Organelles of the Cell – Page 5

Vacuole

CellWall

Vacuole

  • Vacuole – sac that stores water, food, and waste

    • Part of the factory – Storage

    • Plant Cells – have one large, central vacuole

    • Animal Cells – have many small vacuoles

  • Cell Wall – thick outer layer that surrounds the cell membranes of plant cells; provides support to the plant

    • Part of the factory - Walls


Cell processes
Cell Processes

  • All cells undergo processes in order to stay alive

    • They take in materials, release materials, and transport materials throughout their cell

      • They do this through the processes of passive transportand active transport

    • They obtain energy and use energy

      • They do this through the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration


Materials move across membranes
Materials Move Across Membranes

Diffusion

Osmosis

  • Passive Transport – the movement of materials across a cell membrane without the use of energy

    • Diffusion – process by which molecules spread out, or move from areas of where there are many of them to where there are fewer of them

      • Molecules move from higher to lower concentration

    • Osmosis – the diffusion of wateracross a membrane


Materials move across membranes cont
Materials Move Across Membranes Cont…

Exocytosis

Endocytosis

  • Active Transport– Process of using energy to move materials across a membrane

    • Endocytosis – material is captured in a pocket of the membrane and moved into the cell

    • Exocytosis – a pocket in the cell fuses with the membrane and releases material out of the cell


All cells need energy to survive
All Cells Need Energy to Survive

  • Cells get all of their energy from the sugar molecule glucose

  • Autotroph – an organism that makes its own food; also called a producer

    • Examples – plants, algae, phytoplankton

  • Heterotroph – organism that must consume food to get energy; also called a consumer; it cannot makeits own food

    • Examples – animals, fungi


Autotrophs get food from light
Autotrophs Get Food from Light

  • PhotosynthesisReaction:

  • Water + Carbon Dioxide + Light Energy  Glucose + Oxygen

  • Photosynthesis – process that plants and other autotrophs use to turn the energy from light into chemical energy in the form of glucose

    • Occurs in chloroplasts

    • Chlorophyll – light-absorbing pigment that traps energy from the sun; found in chloroplasts


All cells get energy from glucose
All Cells Get Energy from Glucose

  • CellularRespiration – process through which cells use oxygen to releaseenergy stored in glucose

    • Occurs in the mitochondria

    • CellularRespirationReaction:

      Glucose + Oxygen  Chemical Energy + Water + Carbon Dioxide

  • Fermentation – process through which cells release energy stored in glucose withoutoxygen


Cells work together in multicellular organisms
Cells Work Together in Multicellular Organisms

  • All multicellularorganisms begin life as a single, fertilized egg cell

    • As cells divide through asexual reproduction, the specialize to perform specific jobs

    • Example – muscle cells, skin cells, brain cells

  • Specialized cells will worktogether and become increasingly organized:

    • Similar cells join to form tissues

    • Similar tissues join to form organs

    • Similar organs work together to form organsystems

    • Organsystems work together to form organisms

  • Cells Tissues  Organs  Organsystems  Organisms


Notes reflection responses
Notes Reflection Responses

In 5 lines name and describe the six characteristics of organisms.

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

In 5 lines describe how prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are different. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________


Notes reflection responses1
Notes Reflection Responses

In 5 lines name and define 3 organelles of a cell.

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

In 5 lines describe how cells in a multicellular organism work together. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________


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