Ch 36 the cold war begins
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Ch. 36 – The Cold War Begins. Economic Anxieties. Taft- Hartly Act – conservatives ban “closed shops” & institute anti- comminust pledge Union memberships begin decline in 50’s To deal with 15 million veterans returning GI Bill – pays for college for veterans

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Ch. 36 – The Cold War Begins

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Ch 36 the cold war begins

Ch. 36 – The Cold War Begins


Economic anxieties

Economic Anxieties

  • Taft-Hartly Act – conservatives ban “closed shops” & institute anti-comminust pledge

  • Union memberships begin decline in 50’s

  • To deal with 15 million veterans returning

    • GI Bill – pays for college for veterans

    • VA loans for vets toward small businesses


Economic boom 1950 1970

Economic Boom 1950-1970

  • The world’s envy

    • Incomes double in the 50’s, then double again in 60’s

    • By 1973, 40% of world’s wealth in U.S.

    • Prosperity and mobility – leads to Civil Rights gains

      • Desegregation of military after WWII by Truman

    • Middle class doubles

    • Consumerism, standard of living soars

    • Jobs open up for women


Means of prosperity

Means of Prosperity

  • WWII stimulus rebuilt economy

  • Cheap energy

  • Increased education & productivity

  • 1950’s & 60’s prosperity rests on colossal military budgets

    • Defense spending (Korea)

    • High-tech races

    • Scientific research and development for gov’t


Geographic changes

Geographic Changes

  • By the 50’s, the family farm is antique

  • Families highly mobile

  • Growth of Sunbelt region

  • CA explodes, takes the rank as most populated by 1963 and holds the title

  • Wealth & population shift west and south

  • Dying of iron belt “rust belt”


Sunbelt region

Sunbelt Region


Geographic changes1

Geographic Changes

  • Baby Boom – huge birth rate increases 1945-1957, then big decline

  • “white flight” to green suburbs leaves inner cities in NE and Midwest – “black, brown, and broke”

    • Poverty of south migrates to inner cities & more affluent citizens leave

    • Spread pattern of segregation


Beginning of the cold war

Beginning of the Cold War

ROOTS:

  • General mistrust between USSR & US

    • Both emerge as world super powers after WWII

  • Yalta Conference – free elections in Poland promised by Stalin not honored

  • Different political ideologies & goals

    • Democracy v. communism


Postw ar c hanges under truman

Postwar Changes under Truman

  • United Nations – quickly ratified by the U.S. as it had provisions for freedom of action & American Sovereignty

    • Security Council – (Big 5 – Britain, France, U.S., USSR, and China)

  • Recognizes Israel – hurts relations with Arabs and later our oil

  • National Security Act: establishes

    • National Security Council

    • Department of Defense

    • Pentagon

    • CIA

    • Resurrected military draft (19-25)


Dealing w germany

Dealing w/Germany

  • Nuremburg Trials -22 top Nazi officials tried for war crimes

    • Laws of war & humanity, plotting aggression

    • 12 hung, 7 prison sentences


Ch 36 the cold war begins

  • Germany divided into 4 occupation zones leading to the division of East & West Germany


The iron curtain

The Iron Curtain

Satellite nations (Eastern bloc) – under control of Soviet Union


Berlin airlift

Berlin Airlift

  • 1948, Soviets decide to blockade Berlin to choke out Allied control

  • U.S. sends planes in to drop supplies on Berlin for nearly a year

    • Soviets lift blockade, May 1949

    • Official gov’t.s set up in East & West Germany


U s foreign policy shifts

U.S. Foreign Policy Shifts

  • Containment – Policy is to NOT allow communism to spread

  • Truman Doctrine, 1947 – U.S. will aid any country trying to resist communism

    • Loan $400 million to Greece

      & Turkey

    • huge, open-ended commitment

    • world becomes polarized

    • good/evil campaign


Marshall plan

Marshall Plan

*Communism popularin many W. European nations after WWII.

  • Marshall Plan, 1948 – provided economic assistance to Europe, offered to soviets but they refuse

  • 12.5 billion dollars to 16 countries.

  • Spectacular success – countries booming within a few years = communist movements die out


Nato warsaw pact

NATO & Warsaw Pact

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) formed due to communist “threat”, 1949

    • Boosts European unity

  • Warsaw Pact formed by Soviets in response, 1954

    *Both are alliances


Ch 36 the cold war begins

NATO


1 st 2 nd and 3 rd world nations

1st, 2nd, and 3rd World Nations


Imf and world bank

IMF and World Bank

  • International Monetary Fund, 1944 (Bretton Wood Conference) Purpose to uplift economies worldwide, stabilize exchange rates, and promote trade

  • World Bank: provides loans to developing countries for capital programs. Stated goal is to reduce poverty, facilitate foreign investments.

  • GATT: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

    • Reduce tariffs and eliminate trade barriers.


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