Structuring your paper
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Structuring Your Paper. How do I put it all together?. Information Flow. One idea per paragraph Ideas should follow each other in a logical sequence.

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Information flow
Information Flow

  • One idea per paragraph

  • Ideas should follow each other in a logical sequence.

  • Two ways to order results: 1. Chronological “First we did x, then y, then z.” 2. Thematic Whatever order makes most sense


Outline skeleton

W. Li

G. Doczi

Outline ≈ Skeleton

Ref: J. Dorman


Creating an outline
Creating an Outline

  • Summarizes the major points

  • Can help you write the paper: - Each point -> the first or last sentence of paragraph

  • Use your figures to make an outline - add key words to your figures

W. Li

Ref: Penrose & Katz & J. Dorman


Figure outline
Figure Outline

Kuna indians: no hypertension of cardiovascular diseases

Migration from Ailigandi to Vera Cruz results in higher BP

Ailigandi Kuna diet: 10 x more cocoa-beverage, 4x

more fish, 2x more fruit than Vera Cruz Kuna; no difference in salt


Figure outline1
Figure Outline

Table 1. Description of subjects in the study

Figure 2. Results from the study - Intake of Fruit - Intake of Meat/Fish - Intake of Salt, Sweets, Fat - Intake of Beverages



Writing from the outline
Writing From the Outline

Demographic and health characteristics of participants from Ailigandi and Vera Cruz are shown in Table 1. Individuals studied in Ailigandi were slightly older than those interviewed in Vera Cruz. Both study samples were comprised of approximately two-thirds women (more women were available to study because they were at home during the day). Blood pressure levels were lower on Ailigandi, although hypertension was uncommon in both groups. The Kuna residing in Vera Cruz weighed more than those in Ailgandi, but the difference in body mass index did not achieve statistical significance.


Writing from the outline1
Writing From the Outline

Demographic and health characteristics of participants from Ailigandi and Vera Cruz are shown in Table 1. Individuals studied in Ailigandi were slightly older than those interviewed in Vera Cruz. Both study samples were comprised of approximately two-thirds women (more women were available to study because they were at home during the day). Blood pressure levels were lower on Ailigandi, although hypertension was uncommon in both groups. The Kuna residing in Vera Cruz weighed more than those in Ailgandi, but the difference in body mass index did not achieve statistical significance.


Writing from the outline2
Writing From the Outline

Demographic and health characteristics of participants from Ailigandi and Vera Cruz are shown in Table 1. Individuals studied in Ailigandi were slightly older than those interviewed in Vera Cruz. Both study samples were comprised of approximately two-thirds women (more women were available to study because they were at home during the day). Blood pressure levels were lower on Ailigandi, although hypertension was uncommon in both groups. The Kuna residing in Vera Cruz weighed more than those in Ailgandi, but the difference in body mass index did not achieve statistical significance.


Writing from the outline3
Writing From the Outline

Demographic and health characteristics of participants from Ailigandi and Vera Cruz are shown in Table 1. Individuals studied in Ailigandi were slightly older than those interviewed in Vera Cruz. Both study samples were comprised of approximately two-thirds women (more women were available to study because they were at home during the day). Blood pressure levels were lower on Ailigandi, although hypertension was uncommon in both groups. The Kuna residing in Vera Cruz weighed more than those in Ailgandi, but the difference in body mass index did not achieve statistical significance.


Writing from the outline4
Writing From the Outline

Demographic and health characteristics of participants from Ailigandi and Vera Cruz are shown in Table 1. Individuals studied in Ailigandi were slightly older than those interviewed in Vera Cruz. Both study samples were comprised of approximately two-thirds women (more women were available to study because they were at home during the day). Blood pressure levels were lower on Ailigandi, although hypertension was uncommon in both groups. The Kuna residing in Vera Cruz weighed more than those in Ailgandi, but the difference in body mass index did not achieve statistical significance.



Function of a title
Function of a Title

  • Catch reader’s interest- Title will be read by 1,000’s- Few will read your entire paper

  • Identifies paper’s main topic or message

  • Indexing tool

Ref: R. Day and M. Zeiger


How to write an effective title
How to Write an Effective Title

  • Design it so your colleagues will find it

  • Summarize your main point

  • Be concise

  • Be specific

  • Running title


Writing the title
Writing the Title

  • Should briefly answer the question you addressed with your experiments

  • State your major finding

  • Create a “working title” before you write

    • You can change it later if you discover newinterpretations of your data as you write

Ref: V. McMillan


Data vs title
Data vs. title

Different kind of data = different title

- What kind of paper are you presenting?

Methods

Descriptive

Hypothesis


Titles of methods papers
Titles of Methods Papers

State:

  • The method you developed, improved, or characterized

  • What the method is used for

    Example:

    Rapid Subtyping of Dengue Viruses by Restriction Site-Specific (RSS)-PCR

Ref: M. Zeiger


Titles of descriptive papers
Titles of Descriptive Papers

State:

  • What is being described and where

  • If relevant, its significance or function

    Example:

    Clinical, Epidemiologic, and Virologic Featuresof Dengue in the 1998 Epidemic in Nicaragua

    Hip1, a Novel Co-chaperone Involved in the Eukaryotic Heat Shock Response

Ref: M. Zeiger


Titles of hypothesis papers
Titles of Hypothesis Papers

State:

  • The variable that was manipulated or modified

  • The dependent variable that you measured or observed

  • The study organism or location

    Example:

    Growth Inhibitory Effect of Triclosan on Equine and Bovine Babesia Parasites

Ref: M. Zeiger


Good titles be concise

X

Better:“The requirement of maternal factor Oct-3

for the first mouse embryonic division.”

Good Titles: Be Concise

  • Title ≠ sentence; remove filler words

  • Remove verbs that are too definitive, too assertive:

Example: “Oct-3 is a maternal factor required for

the first mouse embryonic division”

Ref: R. Day and M. Zeiger


A good title
A Good Title

  • What is a good title?

    “The fewest possible words that adequately describe the contents of the paper.”

  • Be specific and concise!

Ref: R. Day


Good titles be concise1
Good Titles: Be Concise

Wordy: A Preliminary Study of thePrevalence of Viruses in Three Storm Drains During Wet and Dry Weather in Southern California as Assessed by RT-PCR Detection of Viral RNA

Concise: RT-PCR Detection of Viral RNA

in Three Southern Californian Storm Drains

During Wet and Dry Weather

Ref: V. McMillan


Use few abbreviations
Use Few Abbreviations

  • Confusing to reader!

  • Consider how a researcher would search for the word in PubMed:

    • By the abbreviation or by spelling it out?

    • You want people to find your paper!

  • Use only very common abbreviations

    • RNA, DNA, etc.

    • See Journal’s “Instructions to Authors”

Ref: R. Day and V. McMillan


Title be specific
Title: Be Specific

Vague: Detection of Viruses in Storm Drains

Specific: Detection of Enteroviral and

Hepatitis AViral RNA by RT-PCR in

Three Storm Drains in Southern California

Ref: V. McMillan


Title be specific1
Title: Be Specific

Vague: Detection of malarial DNA in

mosquitoes by PCR

Specific: Detection of Plasmodium falciparum DNA in Anopheles gambiae by PCR (i.e., taxonomic information)

Ref: V. McMillan


Title be specific2
Title: Be Specific

  • For a methods paper:

    • No need to say “New” method for…..

    • If it is an improved method, say what the improvement is:

      Rapid Phenol-Free Method for DNAExtraction from Anopheles gambia Larvae

Ref: M. Zeiger


Running title
Running Title

  • Shorter version of title

  • Appears as a short phrase- At bottom or top of every page of paper

  • Includes key words

Ref: M. Zeiger


Running title example
Running Title: Example

Title:

Widespread Atypical Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania chagasi in Nicaragua

Running Title:

Atypical Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Nicaragua


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