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# A core Course on Modeling - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

A core Course on Modeling. Introduction to Modeling 0LAB0 0LBB0 0LCB0 0LDB0 [email protected] [email protected] S.8. Properties : serve to distinguish and sometimes to order concepts. ordering level 1: nominal only to distinguish individuals.

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### A core Course on Modeling

Introductionto Modeling

0LAB0 0LBB0 0LCB0 0LDB0

S.8

serve todistinguish

andsometimes

toorder concepts

ordering level 1:

nominal

onlytodistinguishindividuals

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stamp_collection.jpg

• numbersmaybenominal:

• telephonenumbers

• lotterynumbers

• social security numbers

• ...

ordering level 1:

nominal

onlytodistinguishindividuals

QUIZ

Numberscanoccur as nominallabels.

Typically, numbers are usedfor ordering.

Givean example of orderingwithoutnumbersinvolved.

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stamp_collection.jpg

• numbersmaybenominal:

• telephonenumbers

• lotterynumbers

• social security numbers

• ...

ordering level 2:

ranking

imposean order onto pairs of individuals

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Commissioned_Officer_Rank_Structure_of_the_Bulgarian_Navy_-_sleeve_insignia.png

partial order:

order betweensome pairs

total order:

order betweenall pairs

ordering level 2:

ranking

imposean order onto pairs of individuals

QUIZ

Numbers are totallyordered: foranytwo non-equalnumbers, one of the two is bigger.

Whataboutfractions (p/q, p and q are both integers)?

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Commissioned_Officer_Rank_Structure_of_the_Bulgarian_Navy_-_sleeve_insignia.png

partial order:

order betweensome pairs

total order:

order betweenall pairs

ordering level 2:

ranking

imposean order onto pairs of individuals

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Commissioned_Officer_Rank_Structure_of_the_Bulgarian_Navy_-_sleeve_insignia.png

• physics:

• Mohsscale (hardness of minerals)

• socialsciences:

• preferences

ordering level 3:

difference (or:Interval) scale

differencebetweenvalues has meaning

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Keyboard_of_grand_piano_-_Steinway_%26_Sons_(Hamburg_factory).jpg

• physics:

• heat transfer  temperaturedifference

• potential energy

• water height (river)

• finance:

•  growth

• credit / debt

ordering level 4:

ratio scale

ratio betweenvalues has meaning

length:

1 : ½ : 1/3

frequency:

1 : 2 : 3

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Vibration_corde_fondamentale_trois_longueurs_petit.gif

• physics:

• heat transfer  temperaturedifference

• potential energy

• water height (river)

• finance:

•  growth

• credit / debt

• physics:

• heat contents  absolute temperature (K)

• kinetic energy

• Kelvin scale (K)

• water flow (m3/s)

• finance:

• % growth

• assets

operationrestrictions per ordering level:

operationrestrictions per ordering level:

operationrestrictions per ordering level:

operationrestrictions per ordering level: