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Training of interviewers. Jan Smit Consultant Statistics Division, ESCAP With thanks to Wei Liu. Outline. Overview of ESCAP/WHO project Training of interviewers. ESCAP/WHO project. ESCAP/WHO Project on Improving Disability Data 2004-2006

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training of interviewers

Training of interviewers

Jan Smit

Consultant

Statistics Division, ESCAP

With thanks to Wei Liu

Training of interviewers

outline
Outline
  • Overview of ESCAP/WHO project
  • Training of interviewers

Training of interviewers

escap who project
ESCAP/WHO project
  • ESCAP/WHO Project on Improving Disability Data
  • 2004-2006
  • Goal: improve national disability statistics by applying the ICF framework and using international measurement standards

Training of interviewers

escap who project cont
ESCAP/WHO project (cont.)
  • Target group: statisticians and experts in disability from 20 countries
  • Expected outcome: capacity to produce better disability data that meet policy needs
  • Partners: Australian Bureau of Statistics, Washington Group

Training of interviewers

project countries
Project countries
  • Afghanistan
  • Brunei Darussalam
  • Cambodia
  • China
  • DPR Korea
  • Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Japan
  • Hong Kong, China
  • Laos
  • Macao, China
  • Republic of Korea
  • Singapore
  • Sri Lanka
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam

Taking part in pilot test

  • Fiji
  • Indonesia
  • India
  • Mongolia
  • Philippines

Training of interviewers

motivation for project
Motivation for project
  • Biwako Millennium Framework for Action (BMF) Principle 6 to “Strengthen national capacity in data collection and analysis concerning disability statistics”
  • However, many data issues within ESCAP region

Training of interviewers

regional disability data issues
Regional disability data issues
  • Data not available to inform policy
  • Disability prevalence is underestimated
  • Traditional view of disability prevails at every layer of societies, incl. government
  • No comparability of data; need for use of international standards and guidelines

Training of interviewers

lack of data comparability
Lack of data comparability

Training of interviewers

project components
Project components
  • Phase 1:
    • Training in the use of ICF for disability collection, in standard methodologies and in design of collection tools
    • National action plans for improving disability information systems
    • Preparation of disability statistics training manual & material

Training of interviewers

project components cont
Project components (cont.)
  • Phase 2:
    • Field testing of standard sets of disability questions through identical protocols
    • Evaluation of results for application to real data collections
    • Building a network of experts

Training of interviewers

main project activities
Main project activities
  • 4 regional workshops for advocating and training on the ICF approach and its implementation
  • Pilot testing of disability questionnaires for use in census and surveys and results analysis and dissemination
  • The ESCAP/WHO Disability Statistics Training Manual

Training of interviewers

interviewer training
Interviewer training
  • Methods and length
  • Interviewer selection
  • Interviewer training elements
  • Interviewing techniques

Training of interviewers

methods interviewer training
Methods interviewer training
  • Role play interviews
  • Interview with a real-life respondent
  • Review video-taped test interviews, if possible
  • Review of training material & and survey instruments
  • Length of training: 2-3 days

Training of interviewers

selection of interviewers
Selection of interviewers
  • Interviewing skills & experience more important than formal qualifications
    • Disability questions should be clearly and simply worded
    • Therefore, no need for interviewers with medical background

Training of interviewers

interviewer training elements
Interviewer training elements
  • Interviewer instructions
    • Data collection objectives, incl. data use
    • Explanation of each question, incl. definitions & response categories
  • Interviewer training course
    • Ideally face-to-face
    • If to costly, home study of interviewer manual + exercises
  • Address stereotypes & myths

Training of interviewers

stereotypes myths
Stereotypes & myths
  • People with disabilities are often viewed as:
    • Incapable of participating in normal social life
    • Lacking skills or talents
    • Needing charity
    • Putting a strain on social resources

Training of interviewers

training therefore should
Training therefore should…
  • Review whether interviewers (perhaps unconsciously) share these views
  • Be dealt with if they exist
    • To eliminate interviewer bias
  • Best discussed in the open during training sessions

Training of interviewers

interviewing techniques
Interviewing techniques
  • Interviewing for disability surveys (or asking disability census question) much the same as with other surveys
  • Interviewer:
    • Introduces him/herself to respondents
    • Is prepared to answer questions from respondents
    • Follows a few simple rules for interviewing

Training of interviewers

introduction gain rapport
Introduction/gain rapport
  • Interviewer introduces him/herself by name
  • Explains topic of survey (or census)
  • Explains for what reason survey is being conducted
  • Says how long (how many minutes) interview is going to last

Training of interviewers

questions respondents may ask
Questions respondents may ask
  • As with any survey:
    • Where did you get my name?
    • Why did you choose me for this interview?
    • What kind of questions are you going to ask?
    • How long is interview going to last? (If not already mentioned)
    • What are you going to do with the data?

Training of interviewers

questions respondents may ask21
Questions respondents may ask
  • Disability survey specific:
    • I’m old, not disabled; why do you include me in your survey?
    • Why does the government spend money on a survey instead of on providing better services?
    • What services (for people with my disability) are offered?

Training of interviewers

simple rules for interviewing
Simple rules for interviewing
  • Ask questions exactly as worded on questionnaire
    • Even slight word changes can change the response obtained
  • Ask questions in the order they appear on the questionnaire
  • Ask every question in questionnaire
    • Even if already answered while answering another question

Training of interviewers

simple rules cont
Simple rules… (cont.)
  • Wait for respondent to finish talking before starting to write
    • Respondent might get upset otherwise
    • Interviewer may make mistakes
  • Don’t interrupt respondent, even if he hesitates or is quiet for a while
  • Don’t anticipate or assume answers

Training of interviewers

simple rules cont24
Simple rules… (cont.)
  • If answer appears dubious and interviewer thinks the respondent doesn’t fully understand the question, repeat the question as written
  • Questions should be asked in a neutral tone; don’t say:
    • “You might not want to answer this question, but…”
    • “This question probably won’t make much sense to you…”

Training of interviewers

simple rules cont25
Simple rules… (cont.)
  • Stay professional and upbeat throughout the interview
    • Even if respondent is difficult or uncooperative
    • Don’t get upset, stay courteous
  • Thank respondent at the end of each interview for his time and co-operation

Training of interviewers

disability specific interviewing
Disability specific interviewing
  • Some households might want to hide names or existence of children (or others) with disabilities
    • All household members should be listed, of course
  • Some people with disabilities might tire easily
    • 1 or more repeat visits might be necessary

Training of interviewers

tips and tricks
Tips and tricks
  • Treat people with disabilities like anyone else
    • Disability doesn’t change everything about a person!
    • Don’t hesitate to use:
      • Look and see with people who are blind or visually impaired
      • Listen and hear with people who are deaf or hard of hearing
      • Walk or run with people with mobility impairments

Training of interviewers

tips and tricks cont
Tips and tricks (cont.)
  • Be respectful of people with disabilities
    • Avoid stereotyping
    • Don’t patronize; don’t tell people with disabilities that you admire them
    • Don’t imply people with disabilities are child-like or of limited intelligence
    • Speak to respondent, not to sign language interpreter (if present)

Training of interviewers

tips and tricks cont29
Tips and tricks (cont.)
  • Be aware of, and accommodate, communication difficulties
    • Persons who are deaf may be able to lip read and converse orally
    • Persons with a speech impairment may be unclear at first; ask to repeat themselves (they are probably used to it)

Training of interviewers

tips and tricks cont30
Tips and tricks (cont.)
  • Accommodate the deaf and hearing-impaired respondent
    • Some visual sign may be needed to draw attention of respondent
    • Only speak more loudly or slowly when requested by respondent (he/she may be able to lip-read)
    • Body language and facial expressions are important

Training of interviewers

tips and tricks cont31
Tips and tricks (cont.)
  • Accommodate the blind and visually-impaired respondent
    • Address respondent by name to make clear he/she is being addressed
    • If Braille material is used, be aware that not all blind respondents can read Braille

Training of interviewers

tips and tricks cont32
Tips and tricks (cont.)
  • Accommodate respondents with intellectual impairments
    • Respondents may need more time to understand questions; don’t rush and repeat if necessary
    • Don’t treat respondents like children
    • Be aware that some respondents may be anxious to please (by giving ‘right’ answers)

Training of interviewers

interviewing in institutions
Interviewing in institutions
  • Presents additional problems that needed to be planned for in advance
    • Schedule appointments (with institution’s staff members) in advance
    • Be prepared for the unpredictable

Training of interviewers

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