Static and dynamic tests of digital measurement devices for power system protection
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Static and Dynamic Tests of Digital Measurement Devices for Power System Protection. M. Gurbiel P. Komarnicki, Z. A. Styczynski, J. Blumschein, A. Phadke CIGRE Actual Trends in Development of Power System Protection and Automation Moscow, Russia, 7-10 September 2009.

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Static and Dynamic Tests of Digital Measurement Devices for Power System Protection

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Static and dynamic tests of digital measurement devices for power system protection

Static and Dynamic Tests of Digital Measurement Devices for Power System Protection

M. Gurbiel

P. Komarnicki, Z. A. Styczynski, J. Blumschein, A. Phadke

CIGRE Actual Trends in Development of Power System Protection and Automation

Moscow, Russia, 7-10 September 2009

Chair Electric Power Networks and Renewable Energy Sources


Table of contents

Table of Contents

  • Measurement devices supporting power network operation and protection

    • Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU)

    • Merging Unit (MU)

  • Test bench for measurement device testing

  • Accuracy scenarios

  • Accuracy calculation methods

  • Accuracy test examples

  • Summary

Static and Dynamic Tests of Digital Measurement Devices for Power System Protection


Phasor measurement unit and merging unit

Phasor Measurement Unit and Merging Unit

  • Phasor Measurement Unit measurement principle is defined in IEEE C37.118-2005

  • Merging Unit:

    • [IEC 60044-8] Physical unit performing the time coherent combination of the current and/or voltage data coming from secondary converters. The merging unit can be a part of one of the transducers in the field or maybe a separate unit (e.g. in the control room)

    • [IEC 61850-9-1] Interface unit that accepts multiple analogue CT/VT and binary inputs and produces multiple time synchronized serial unidirectional multi-drop digital point to point outputs to provide data communication via the logical interface 4 and 5

IEC 61850-5

Static and Dynamic Tests of Digital Measurement Devices for Power System Protection


Accuracy testing merging unit s test setup

Accuracy Testing - Merging Unit’s Test Setup

Test bench capable of testing two MUs simultaneously

PPS and LAN-time source via GPS receiver

PC with IEC-61850-9-2 protocol reader

Arbitrary waveform generator allows for the execution of static and dynamic scenarios

Programmable reference measurement device

Static and Dynamic Tests of Digital Measurement Devices for Power System Protection


Accuracy testing accuracy calculation methods

Accuracy Testing - Accuracy Calculation Methods

Fourier based method

Sample to Sample method

Park's Transform method

  • Suitable only for static scenarios

  • Averaging random errors

  • Synchronization errors visible in phase displacements

1. Magnitude error

2. Phase difference

3. Total Vector Error

1.

2.

3.

Static and Dynamic Tests of Digital Measurement Devices for Power System Protection


Accuracy testing accuracy calculation methods1

Accuracy Testing - Accuracy Calculation Methods

Fourier based method

Sample to Sample method

Park's Transform method

  • Suitable only for static scenarios

  • Sample random errors preserved

  • Synchronization errors indistinguishable

1. Average value – DC error component

2. Standard deviation of a signal – AC error component

3. Maximum absolute value of the errors in the analysis window

1.

2.

Static and Dynamic Tests of Digital Measurement Devices for Power System Protection


Accuracy testing accuracy calculation methods2

Accuracy Testing - Accuracy Calculation Methods

Fourier based method

Sample to Sample method

Park's Transform method

  • Suitable for static and dynamic scenarios

  • Sample random errors preserved

  • Synchronization errors visible in phase displacements

  • One error for 3-phase system

1. Magnitude error

2. Phase difference

3. Total Vector Error

Static and Dynamic Tests of Digital Measurement Devices for Power System Protection


Accuracy testing test scenarios overview

Accuracy Testing - Test Scenarios Overview

Static scenarios:

Symmetrical and asymmetrical magnitude change

Symmetrical and asymmetrical angle change

Frequency change

Flat curve test

Over swing test

Harmonic test

Dynamic scenarios:

Frequency step

Frequency ramp

Angle step

Magnitude step

DC step

Miscellaneous scenarios

Frequency response test

Merging Unit’s noise test

Anti-Aliasing filter test

Static scenario definitions

Static and Dynamic Tests of Digital Measurement Devices for Power System Protection


Merging unit test examples static tests

Merging Unit Test Examples – Static Tests

1

4.5

4

0.5

3.5

3

0

[%]

[%]

2.5

maxerr

DCerr

-0.5

2

U

U

1.5

-1

1

-1.5

Ph#1

Ph#1

Ph#1

Ph#1

0.5

Ph#2

Ph#2

Ph#2

Ph#2

Ph#3

Ph#3

Ph#3

Ph#3

0

-2

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Magnitude level [%]

Magnitude level [%]

1

2.

0.9

1.

0.8

0.7

[%]

-0.04

0.6

ACerr

U

-0.06

0.5

Voltage error [%]

0.4

-0.08

0.3

-0.1

0.2

4.

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

3.

Magnitude level [%]

20

40

60

80

100

120

Magnitude level [%]

  • Symmetrical magnitude change scenario

    • Fourier based method (4)

    • Sample to Sample method (1, 2, 3)

Static and Dynamic Tests of Digital Measurement Devices for Power System Protection


Merging unit test examples dynamic tests

Merging Unit Test Examples - Dynamic Tests

Angle step scenario. (+90°)

Step in 100µs

  • Angle-step test using Park transform

  • DC-step test shows the averaging method of MU measurement

Static and Dynamic Tests of Digital Measurement Devices for Power System Protection


Merging unit test examples miscellaneous tests

Merging Unit Test Examples – Miscellaneous Tests

Static and Dynamic Tests of Digital Measurement Devices for Power System Protection


Pmu test examples

PMU Test Examples

2.

  • Dynamic Tests:

    • Frequency Ramp Test (1)

  • Static Tests:

    • Frequency Change Test (2, 3) Fourier based method

1.

3.

Static and Dynamic Tests of Digital Measurement Devices for Power System Protection


Conclusions

Conclusions

The digital measurement devices that may be used as a digital interface between power network and power network protection equipment need proper accuracy testing

The static scenarios cover the uncertainty evaluation of both the merging unit and phasor measurement unit

The dynamic scenarios test introduce MU and PMU to the situations such as short-circuits, voltage and current drops and increases, angle steps and step changes in frequency

The special tests are developed for testing the equipment performance and equipment components.

The accuracy methods should be chosen in respect to requirements of devices that use merging unit’s data

The Fourier-based method is suitable for PMU accuracy analysis and covers requirements that comes from a standard IEEE C37.118-2005

The sample-to-sample method is another approach for testing the MUs and is designed to fulfill the accuracy requirements when small number of samples is available

The test setup performance in respect to synchronization is a key issue for accuracy calculation using sample-to-sample method

The Park's Transform method is suitable for dynamic test visualization

Static and Dynamic Tests of Digital Measurement Devices for Power System Protection


Thank you for your attention

Thank You for Your Attention


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