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Anaerobic Pathways. Organisms use these pathways in oxygen-poor environments such as Wet environments Human digestive tract Deep underground. Organisms in these environments can obtain energy from glycolysis in a limited way Step 6 (G3P to BPG) reduces NAD + to NADH.

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slide2

Organisms use these pathways in oxygen-poor environments such as

    • Wet environments
    • Human digestive tract
    • Deep underground
slide3

Organisms in these environments can obtain energy from glycolysis in a limited way

  • Step 6 (G3P to BPG) reduces NAD+ to NADH.
  • If no oxidation of NADH occurs due to lack of oxygen, NAD+ will be limited thus stopping glycolysis.
  • Some organisms have a different route of oxidizing NADH called fermentation.
  • Bacteria have many different routes
  • Eukaryotes have 2 methods
fermentation in eukaryotes
Fermentation in Eukaryotes
  • The two methods of fermentation in Eukaryotes are:
    • Ethanol fermentation
    • Lactic Acid Fermentation (Lactate fermentation)
ethanol fermentation alcohol fermentation
Ethanol Fermentation = alcohol fermentation.
  • Glucose undergoes glycolysis to produce 2 pyruvates, 2NADH + 2H+ and 2 ATP net.
  • The 2 pyruvates are decarboxylated and form 2 acetalaldedydes.
  • The two acetalaldedydes are reduced by 2NADH from glycolysis forming 2 ethanols and 2 NAD+
  • CO2 and ethanol are waste products
  • Example of an organism that carry out ethanol fermentation is yeast.
alcohol fermentation
Alcohol Fermentation

One of main function is to resupplies glycolysis with NAD+

uses of alcohol fermentation
Uses of alcohol Fermentation
  • Humans use alcohol fermentation to make breads, pastries, beers, wines, liquor and soy sauce.
  • These are products of fermentation.
  • Accumulation of ethanol in an organism can cause death.
slide8

Lactate Fermentation

  • During exercise, muscles respire faster than the body can supply oxygen.
  • Oxidative respiration slows down and lactic acid fermentation begins
  • Glucose undergoes glycolysis to produce 2 pyruvates, 2NADH + 2H+ and 2 ATP net.
  • The 2 pyruvates are reduced by 2NADH from glycolysis forming 2 lactates and 2 NAD+
  • NAD+ generated goes back to glycolysis
  • Lactate accumulates
slide10

Accumulation of lactate causes stiffness, soreness and fatigue

  • This reaction is reversible
    • When exercises cease, andoxygen is present:
    • Lactate is shuttled to liverto be oxidized.
    • Pyruvate and NADH are replenished
  • Pyruvate gets into the mitochondria where it undergoes aerobic cellular respiration.
slide11

Homework

  • Pg. 194: # 1-4, 6, 7
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