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Capsule-based Active Networks: What have we learned?. David Wetherall ([email protected]) University of Washington. State of Active Networks. AS1. ACTIVE IP. Plugins. Softnet. ANTS. ??. M Ø. PLAN. The Active Internet. PAN. Vision. 96. 97. 98. 99. 00. …. 0x.

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Capsule based active networks what have we learned

Capsule-based Active Networks: What have we learned?

David Wetherall ([email protected])

University of Washington


State of active networks
State of Active Networks

AS1

ACTIVE IP

Plugins

Softnet

ANTS

??

PLAN

The Active

Internet

PAN

Vision

96

97

98

99

00

0x

Are we there yet?

So when can

I use it?

djw // OpenSig’99 // 10/99


Context styles of extensibility
Context: Styles of Extensibility

Getting beyond “One size fits all”

djw // OpenSig’99 // 10/99


This is ants
This is ANTS

  • Aim: Each user controls the handling of their own packets in the network

  • How well does this work?

capsules

User 1

User 2

active

nodes

djw // OpenSig’99 // 10/99


Icmp as a minimal system
ICMP as a Minimal System

  • ICMP

    • Runs at all IP routers, can be used by all users

  • Programs

    • Traceroute, path MTU discovery

performance

security

flexibility

ICMP

ANTS?

djw // OpenSig’99 // 10/99


Ants tradeoffs
ANTS Tradeoffs

  • Mobile code for flexibility

  • Simple forwarding model for performance / security

    • Depend on caching; target experimentation

#7

IP

#7

data

RUNTIME

#23

djw // OpenSig’99 // 10/99


Accepting heterogeneity
Accepting Heterogeneity

  • Can’t make forwarding simpler, so processing ultimately depends on node’s abilities /position

    • E.g. 1GHz, 1Gbps, 1000b, 100%  1000 cycles

    • Or if 100Mbps, 10%  100,000 cycles

    • Wide variation  heterogeneity is fundamental

  • Build into programming model

    • Can query node to determine what’s appropriate

    • Non-active nodes (IP routers) at bottom

djw // OpenSig’99 // 10/99


A minor matter of security
A Minor Matter of Security

  • Vision: unprivileged users have unrestricted access

  • Requires Protection

    • My program can’t corrupt your program

       We know how to do this

  • Requires Resource Management

    • My program can’t starve your program

       The harder problem

djw // OpenSig’99 // 10/99


Resource management tasks
Resource Management Tasks

djw // OpenSig’99 // 10/99


The per packet problem
The “Per Packet” Problem

  • TTLs are a weak solution; not related to topology

  • Fairness mechanisms mitigate, but arguably not enough

  • Restricted program forms may help …

Want to

Stop this!

djw // OpenSig’99 // 10/99


Programming with ants
Programming with ANTS

  • Examples

    • Multicast (single source and PIM)

    • Mobility

    • Reliable Multicast support

    • Path MTU discovery

    • Auctions

    • Web cache diversion routing

    • “TCP-SYN” filtering

djw // OpenSig’99 // 10/99


Lessons discoveries
Lessons / Discoveries

  • How to program mixed networks: A complication

  • Code as flexible “glue”: Many variations

  • A clean way to query the network: Heterogeneity

  • The set of unchangeable things: Shared assumptions

More Application Experience is Needed!

djw // OpenSig’99 // 10/99


More details
More Details

  • See paper in SOSP’99:

    • Active Network Vision and Reality: Lessons from a Capsule-based System, D. Wetherall.

djw // OpenSig’99 // 10/99


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