Improving education a triumph of hope over experience
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 41

Improving Education: A triumph of hope over experience PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 112 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Improving Education: A triumph of hope over experience. Robert Coe Edge Hill University: 6th Annual Education Conference, 9 July 2014. A triumph of hope over experience. Experience Have educational standards really risen? School improvement: Isn’t it time there was some?

Download Presentation

Improving Education: A triumph of hope over experience

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Improving education a triumph of hope over experience

Improving Education:A triumph of hope over experience

Robert Coe

Edge Hill University: 6th Annual Education Conference, 9 July 2014


A triumph of hope over experience

A triumph of hope over experience

  • Experience

    • Have educational standards really risen?

    • School improvement: Isn’t it time there was some?

    • Can we identify effective schools and teachers?

    • Is ‘evidence-based’ practice and policy the answer?

  • Hope

    • So what should we do (that hasn’t failed yet)?

www.cem.org/attachments/publications/ImprovingEducation2013.pdf


Have educational standards really risen

Have educational standards really risen?


Improving education a triumph of hope over experience

Equivalent change in GCSE grades


Improving education a triumph of hope over experience

(Updated from Coe, 2007)


Iccams hodgen et al

ICCAMS (Hodgen et al)


School improvement isn t it time there was some

School improvement: Isn’t it time there was some?


Mistaking school improvement 1 coe 2009

Mistaking School Improvement (1)(Coe, 2009)

  • Wait for a bad year or choose underperforming schools to start with. Most things self-correct or revert to expectations (you can claim the credit for this).

  • Take on any initiative, and ask everyone who put effort into it whether they feel it worked. No-one wants to feel their effort was wasted.

  • Define ‘improvement’ in terms of perceptions and ratings of teachers. DO NOT conduct any proper assessments – they may disappoint.

  • Only study schools or teachers that recognise a problem and are prepared to take on an initiative. They’ll probably improve whatever you do.


Mistaking school improvement 2 coe 2009

Mistaking School Improvement (2) (Coe, 2009)

  • Conduct some kind of evaluation, but don’t let the design be too good – poor quality evaluations are much more likely to show positive results.

  • If any improvement occurs in any aspect of performance, focus attention on that rather than on any areas or schools that have not improved or got worse (don’t mention them!).

  • Put some effort into marketing and presentation of the school. Once you start to recruit better students, things will improve.


Can we identify effective schools and teachers

Can we identify effective schools and teachers?


Problems with school effectiveness research

Problems with school effectiveness research

  • ‘Value-added’ is not effectiveness (Gorard, 2010; Dumay, Coe & Anumendem, 2013)

  • Characteristics of ‘effective schools’

    • ‘strong leadership’, ‘high expectations’, ‘positive climate’ and a ‘focus on teaching and learning’

    • Too vague

    • ‘Effects’ are tiny anyway (Scheerens, 2000, 2012)

  • Correlations, not causes (Coe & Fitz-Gibbon, 1998)

    • Can ‘effective’ strategies be implemented?

    • If so, do they lead to improvement?


Is evidence based practice and policy the answer

Is ‘evidence-based’ practice and policy the answer?


Toolkit of strategies to improve learning

Toolkit of Strategies to Improve Learning

The Sutton Trust-EEF Teaching and Learning Toolkit

http://www.educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/toolkit/


Impact vs cost

www.educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/toolkit

Impact vs cost

Most promising for raising attainment

8

May be worth it

Feedback

Meta-cognitive

Peer tutoring

Early Years

Homework (Secondary)

1-1 tuition

Effect Size (months gain)

Collaborative

Behaviour

Small gp tuition

Phonics

Parental involvement

Smaller classes

ICT

Social

Summer schools

Individualised learning

Small effects / high cost

After school

Teaching assistants

Mentoring

Homework (Primary)

Performance pay

Aspirations

0

Setting

£0

£1000

Cost per pupil


Key messages

Key messages

  • Some things that are popular or widely thought to be effective are probably not worth doing

    • Ability grouping (setting); After-school clubs; Teaching assistants; Smaller classes; Performance pay; Raising aspirations

  • Some things look ‘promising’

    • Effective feedback; Meta-­cognitive and self regulation strategies; Peer tutoring/peer‐assisted learning strategies; Homework


Clear simple advice

Clear, simple advice:

  • Choose from the top left

  • Go back to school and do it

For every complex problem there is an answer that is clear, simple, and wrong

H.L. Mencken


Why not

Why not?

  • We have been doing some of these things for a long time, but have generally not seen improvement

  • Research evidence is problematic

    • Sometimes the existing evidence is thin

    • Research studies may not reflect real life

    • Context and ‘support factors’ may matter (Cartwright and Hardie, 2012)

  • Implementation is problematic

    • We may think we are doing it, but are we doing it right?

    • We do not know how to get large groups of teachers and schools to implement these interventions in ways that are faithful, effective and sustainable


So what should we do that hasn t failed yet

So what should we do (that hasn’t failed yet)?


Four steps to improvement

Four steps to improvement

  • Think hard about learning

  • Invest in effective professional development

  • Evaluate teaching quality

  • Evaluate impact of changes


1 think hard about learning

1. Think hard about learning


Impact vs cost1

www.educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/toolkit

Impact vs cost

Most promising for raising attainment

8

May be worth it

Feedback

Meta-cognitive

Peer tutoring

Early Years

Homework (Secondary)

1-1 tuition

Effect Size (months gain)

Collaborative

Behaviour

Small gp tuition

Phonics

Parental involvement

Smaller classes

ICT

Social

Summer schools

Individualised learning

Small effects / high cost

After school

Teaching assistants

Mentoring

Homework (Primary)

Performance pay

Aspirations

0

Setting

£0

£1000

Cost per pupil


True or false

True or false?

  • Reducing class size is one of the most effective ways to increase learning [evidence]

  • Differentiation and ‘personalised learning’ resources maximise learning [evidence]

  • Praise encourages learners and helps them persist with hard tasks [evidence]

  • Technology supports learning by engaging and motivating learners [evidence]

  • The best way to raise attainment is to enhance motivation and interest [evidence]


Poor proxies for learning

Poor Proxies for Learning

  • Students are busy: lots of work is done (especially written work)

  • Students are engaged, interested, motivated

  • Students are getting attention: feedback, explanations

  • Classroom is ordered, calm, under control

  • Curriculum has been ‘covered’ (ie presented to students in some form)

  • (At least some) students have supplied correct answers, even if they

    • Have not really understood them

    • Could not reproduce them independently

    • Will have forgotten it by next week (tomorrow?)

    • Already knew how to do this anyway


A better proxy for learning

A better proxy for learning?

Learning happens when people have to think hard


Hard questions about your school

Hard questions about your school

  • How many minutes does an average pupil on an average day spend really thinking hard?

  • Do you really want pupils to be ‘stuck’ in your lessons?

  • If they knew the right answer but didn’t know why, how many pupils would care?


2 invest in effective cpd

2. Invest in effective CPD


Improving education a triumph of hope over experience

How do we get students to learn hard things?

Eg

  • Place value

  • Persuasive writing

  • Music composition

  • Balancing chemical equations

  • Explain what they should do

  • Demonstrate it

  • Get them to do it (with gradually reducing support)

  • Provide feedback

  • Get them to practise until it is secure

  • Assess their skill/ understanding


Improving education a triumph of hope over experience

How do we get teachers to learn hard things?

Eg

  • Using formativeassessment

  • Assertive discipline

  • How to teachalgebra

  • Explain what they should do


What cpd helps students

What CPD helps students?

  • Intense: at least 30 contact hours, preferably 50

  • Sustained: over at least two terms

  • Content focused: on teachers’ knowledge of subject content & how students learn it

  • Active: opportunities to try it out & discuss

  • Supported: external feedback and networks to improve and sustain

  • Evidence based: promotes strategies supported by robust evaluation evidence

Do you do this?


3 evaluate teaching quality

3. Evaluate teaching quality


Improving education a triumph of hope over experience

Every teacher needs to improve, not because they are not good enough, but because they can be even better.

Dylan Wiliam


Why monitor teaching quality

Why monitor teaching quality?

  • Good evidence of (potential) benefit from

    • Performance feedback(Coe, 2002)

    • Target setting (Locke & Latham, 2006)

    • Accountability (Coe & Sahlgren, 2014)

  • Individual teachers matter most

  • Teachers typically stop improving after 3-5 years

  • Everyone can improve

  • Judging real quality/effectiveness is very hard

    • Multidimensional

    • Not easily visible

    • Confounded

“… effective evaluation is good for pupils and good for teachers. It can improve the quality of teaching, provided it is accompanied by good feedback, and it can lead to better results for pupils and improved learning” (Murphy, 2013)


Monitoring the quality of teaching

Monitoring the quality of teaching

  • Progress in assessments

    • Quality of assessment matters (cem.org/blog)

    • Regular, high quality assessment across curriculum (InCAS, INSIGHT)

  • Classroom observation

    • Much harder than you think! (cem.org/blog)

    • Multiple observations/ers, trained and QA’d

  • Student ratings

    • Extremely valuable, if done properly (http://www.cem.org/latest/student-evaluation-of-teaching-can-it-raise-attainment-in-secondary-schools)

  • Other

    • Parent ratings feedback

    • Student work scrutiny

    • Colleague perceptions (360)

    • Self assessment

    • Pedagogical content knowledge


Lesson observation

Lesson Observation

  • Two teachers observe the same lesson, one rates it ‘Inadequate’. What is the probability the other will agree?

    a) 10% b) 40% c) 60% d) 80%

  • An observer judges a lesson ‘Outstanding’. What is the probability that pupils are really making sustained, outstanding progress?

    a) 5% b) 30% c) 50% d) 70%

www.cem.org/blog


Evidence based lesson observation

Evidence-Based Lesson Observation

  • Behaviour and organisation

    • Maximise time on task, engagement, rules & consequences

  • Classroom climate

    • Respect, quality of interactions, failure OK, high expectations, growth mindset

  • Learning

    • What made students think hard?

    • Quality of: exposition, demonstration, scaffolding, feedback, practice, assessment

    • What provided evidence of students’ understanding?

    • How was this responded to? (Feedback)


4 evaluate impact of changes

4. Evaluateimpact of changes


A research engaged school

A research-engaged school

  • Draws on knowledge and understanding of research to inform

    • Pedagogical practice

    • Decisions about strategy and policies

    • Attempts to implement and embed more effective practices

  • Robustly evaluates

    • Its ongoing performance on a range of outcomes

    • The impact of any changes made


Rise research leads improving students education

RISE: Research-leads Improving Students’ Education

  • With Alex Quigley, John Tomsett, Stuart Kime

  • Based around York

  • RCT: 20 school leaders trained in research, 20 controls

  • Contact: [email protected]


Key elements of good evaluation

Key elements of good evaluation

EEF DIY Evaluation Guide

  • Clear, well defined, replicable intervention

  • Good assessment of appropriate outcomes

  • Well-matched comparison group

What could you evaluate?


A triumph of hope over experience1

A triumph of hope over experience

  • Experience

    • So far, we haven’t cracked it: don’t keep doing the same things

  • Hope

    • Think hard about learning

    • Invest in effective professional development

    • Evaluate teaching quality

    • Evaluate impact of changes


  • Login