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Chromosome Abnormalities. Karyotype Charts. I single Y chromosome is a sufficient to produce maleness while its absence is necessary for femaleness……. Down Syndrome. Trisomy 21

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Chromosome abnormalities

Chromosome Abnormalities

Karyotype Charts



Down syndrome
Down Syndrome while its absence is necessary for femaleness……

  • Trisomy 21

  • Often Down syndrome is associated with poor physical development and mental retardation, people with Down syndrome have features characteristic feature of the disease has been nimita and mongolism.


  • When meiosis goes wrong while its absence is necessary for femaleness……

  • Errors at meiosis occur more often in the egg cell as women get older, so the chances of a couple having a baby with Down syndrome rises from about one in 1400 in women under the age of 25, to one in a 100 by age 40.


Turner s syndrome
Turner’s Syndrome while its absence is necessary for femaleness……

  • XO

  • 45 chromosomes

  • Don’t ovulate, slight mental retardation, sterile, 4’7” short, webbed neck, small wide breasts, broad chest, turned out elbows


Klinefelter s xxy or xxxy xxxxy
Klinefelter’s XXY while its absence is necessary for femaleness……or XXXY XXXXY

  • Sterile

  • High pitch voice

  • Make little testosterone

  • Taller by an inch

  • Not homo- but not interested in girls…

  • Overweight


Gynecomastia
Gynecomastia while its absence is necessary for femaleness……


Xxx super females
XXX Super-females while its absence is necessary for femaleness……

  • Inch or so taller

  • Long legs- slim torso

  • Normal /fertile

  • Low normal intelligence

  • 1 in 1000


Xyy syndrome
XYY syndrome while its absence is necessary for femaleness……

  • Supermales

  • Tall above 6 feet

  • Act normal

  • Produce HIGH levels of testosterone

  • Puberty- slender, severe acne, poorly coordinated

  • Fertile

  • Serial Killers- not true,

  • But wife beaters? Maybe


Trisomy 18
Trisomy 18 while its absence is necessary for femaleness……

  • Mental retardation, seizures

  • Small head

  • Small wide set eyes

  • Heart defects

  • Clenched hands


Patau syndrome trisomy 13
Patau Syndrome: Trisomy 13 while its absence is necessary for femaleness……

  • Cleft lip or palate

  • Clenched hands (with outer fingers on top of the inner fingers)

  • Close-set eyes -- eyes may actually fuse together into one

  • Decreased muscle tone

  • Extra fingers or toes (polydactyly)

  • Hernias: umbilical hernia, inguinal hernia

  • Hole, split, or cleft in the iris (coloboma)

  • Low-set ears

  • Mental retardation, severe

  • Scalp defects (missing skin)

  • Seizures

  • Single palmar crease

  • Skeletal (limb) abnormalities

  • Small eyes

  • Small head (microcephaly)

  • Small lower jaw (micrognathia)

  • Undescended testicle (cryptorchidism)



3 years old
3 years old while its absence is necessary for femaleness……


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