The atmosphere
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The Atmosphere. THE ATMOSPHERE. Definition: Atmosphere. Air that surrounds the earth Composed of: Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 21% Misc. Gases (water vapor, argon, etc… 1%). How did it form?. THEORY ………. As earth cooled, released gases from the earth’s interior

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The Atmosphere

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The atmosphere

The Atmosphere

THE ATMOSPHERE


Definition atmosphere

Definition: Atmosphere

  • Air that surrounds the earth

  • Composed of:

    • Nitrogen 78%

    • Oxygen 21%

    • Misc. Gases (water vapor, argon, etc… 1%)


How did it form

How did it form?

  • THEORY ……….

  • As earth cooled, released gases from the earth’s interior

  • Not the same composition as today’s atmosphere


Benefits of atmosphere

Benefits of Atmosphere

  • Provides gases necessary for life (oxygen, carbon dioxide)

  • Protects us from majority of suns harmful UV radiation

  • Allows light to reach surface for energy and photosynthesis

  • Radiates some heat back to Earth, therefore warming the planet


Layers

Layers

  • Defined by changes in temperature

  • Troposphere

    • tropopause

  • Stratosphere

    • stratopause

  • Mesosphere

    • mesopause

  • Thermosphere


Troposphere

Troposphere


Troposphere1

Troposphere

  • 0-12 km

  • Where we live

  • Weather occurs here

  • As height increases, temperature decreases

  • Temperature drops ~ 6.50 C/km above Earth’s surface

  • Greatest amount of air pressure (weight of air above)


Tropopause

Tropopause

  • Top of troposphere

  • Temperature fairly constant

  • Separates troposphere from stratosphere

  • Where jet stream is

    • Very strong winds that blow eastward


Stratosphere

Stratosphere


Stratosphere1

Stratosphere

  • 12 – 50 km

  • Lower part’s temperature is constant (~60oC)

  • Contains ozone layer

  • People can’t breathe in this layer

  • Lowest part of stratosphere there is less turbulence so where commercial airlines usually fly!


The atmosphere

Ozone Layer


Ozone layer

Ozone Layer

  • Earth’s shield

  • Protects Earth’s surface from the sun’s harmful UV radiation

  • It absorbs the sun’s UV radiation

  • Causes an increase in temperature in upper part of stratosphere


Mesoshpere

Mesoshpere


Mesosphere

Mesosphere

  • 50 – 80 km

  • Temperature decrease to -100oC

  • Coldest region of atmosphere

    • This is due to the gases in this layer can’t absorb any of the suns energy (therefore, really cold)

  • Protects earth from ‘meteorites’

  • Meteorites burn up in this area creating “shooting stars” effect


The atmosphere

Shooting stars


Thermosphere

Thermosphere


Thermosphere1

Thermosphere

  • 80 km and up

  • Air very thin

  • Temperaturesvery high because of sun’s intense UV radiation

  • Temps can be >2000oC

  • Has 2 sub-layers

    • Ionoshpere

    • exosphere


Ionosphere

Ionosphere

  • 80 km – 550 km

  • Contains charged “ionic” particles

  • Where radio waves are bounced back from


Exosphere

Exosphere

  • > 550 km.

  • Air extremely thin

  • Area where satellites orbit

  • Enter space once exit exosphere


Magnetosphere

Magnetosphere

  • Earth’s magnetic field

  • Causes Northern Lights


The atmosphere

NORTHERN LIGHTS


Assignment

Assignment

  • Create a foldable of the layers of the atmosphere.

  • READ AND FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS !!!! DO THIS STEP BY STEP !


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