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Experimental Psychology PSY 433. Chapter 10 (Cont.) Memory. Lexical Decision Results. ANOVA Results. APA Format ANOVA Table. Describing Results in Text. Response times for related words and non-words were significantly faster than for non-related words and non-words, F(1,20)=4.457, p=.048.

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Experimental psychology psy 433

Experimental PsychologyPSY 433

Chapter 10 (Cont.)

Memory





Describing results in text
Describing Results in Text

  • Response times for related words and non-words were significantly faster than for non-related words and non-words, F(1,20)=4.457, p=.048.

  • There were no significant differences between response times for words and non-words and no significant interaction between relatedness and type of pair (words vs non-words).

  • Put interpretation in the Discussion section.


Levels of processing theory
Levels of Processing Theory

  • Memory is determined by thinking, which can be shallow or deep.

  • Three “levels” tested:

    • Physical – caps or lower case letters?

    • Phonological – rhymes with sad?

    • Semantic – describes mom?

  • Deep thinking leaves strongest memory trace.


Example
Example

  • Which words are in caps vs. which words describe mom?

  • MILD, foamy, TALENTED, hairy, CIRCULAR, winged, TALL, minty, SWEET, wily, tubular, WONDERFUL, WILD, stuporous, FILMY, STRANGE, normal.

  • Tested by free listing as many words as can be remembered.


L o p applied
L.O.P. Applied

  • Reading involves deep processing because you must understand the meanings of words

  • Studying involves deeper processing, because in addition to reading, you must form semantic associations between new information and current knowledge, updating and reorganizing current knowledge, and creating new relationships in semantic memory.


Craik and tulving 1975
Craik and Tulving (1975)

  • Classic levels of processing experiment

  • DV: recognition % of 60 old & 120 new words

  • Within-subject IV: studied words graphemically (cat or CAT), phonemically (cat rhyme with sat?), semantically (cat an animal?).


How generalizable are results
How Generalizable are Results?

  • Internal validity – how well designed is the study?

  • External validity – are the results true in the world?

  • Jenkins (1979) suggests a tetrahedral (four point) model of thinking about external validity of memory study results

    • Four general ways of thinking about how experimental results of any study may generalize.


Who are the subjects?

What kind of task was presented – in what kind of setting or context?

What kinds of tests or measures were used as a DV?

What materials were used?


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