Biology 106
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Biology 106. Yntze van der Hoek. Course set up. -Biology, 9 th or 10 th edition, Sylvia Mader Try on half.com, textbooks.com, valorebooks.com, ebay.com, bookbyte.com etc. -Syllabus Week 1 – Chapter 1 Week 2 – Chapter 2 Week 3 – Chapter 3 Week 4 – Chapter 4 & 5

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Biology 106

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Biology 106

Biology 106

Yntze van der Hoek


Course set up

Course set up

  • -Biology, 9th or 10th edition, Sylvia Mader

  • Try on half.com, textbooks.com, valorebooks.com, ebay.com, bookbyte.com etc.

-Syllabus

Week 1 – Chapter 1

Week 2 – Chapter 2

Week 3 – Chapter 3

Week 4 – Chapter 4 & 5

Week 5 – Chapter 6,8

Week 6 – Chapter 7

Week 7 – Chapter 31

Week 8 – Chapter 32,33

Week 9 – Chapter 34

Week 10 – Chapter 36

Week 11 – Chapter 37,38

Week 12 – Chapter 39

Week 13 – Chapter 40

Week 14 – Chapter 41


Course set up1

Course set up

  • Wed 21 September: Chapter 1, 2, 3

  • Wed 12 October: Chapter 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

  • Wed 26 October: Chapter 31, 32, 33

  • Wed 23 November: Chapter 34, 36, 37, 38, 39

  • Final exam ?


A view of life

A view of life

  • Chapter 1

  • Defining life

  • Classification & Evolution

  • Biosphere organization

  • The scientific method


Defining life

Defining life

  • What do we consider living things, what do these have in common?

  • E.g. cells: the basic structural and functional unit of all living things.


Defining life1

Defining life

  • -Different levels of organization:

  • Atoms, Molecules, Cells….up to Communities, Ecosystems, and Biospheres


Requirements

Requirements

  • Energy

    • E.g. via photosynthesis

    • Nutrients

  • Metabolism

    • Homeostasis


  • Behavior

    Behavior

    • …what is it?

      • Vulture can detect and find carcass a mile away and soar toward dinner

      • Monarch butterfly senses approach of fall and migrates south

      • Microroganisms can sense light or chemicals

      • Even leaves of plants follow sun


    Reproduction

    Reproduction

    • Organisms: Live…Die

    • In between:

    • REPRODUCTION

    • In (most) multicellular organisms:

    • Union of sperm and egg

    • Cell division, differentiation

    • Development

      • Coded by: genes

        • DNA

        • Chromosomes


    Adaptations

    Adaptations

    • Modifications

    • Survive climate

    • Find food, mates

    • ....……. ??

    • Responses to environmental changes over time

    • Similarity of organism at basic leveland organization indicates:

    • Descend from same ancestors


    Evolution the unifying concept of biology

    Evolution, the Unifying Concept of Biology

    • organisms very similar at basic level

      • Suggests living things descended from same ancestor

      • Descent with modification - Evolution

      • Caused by natural selection


    Classification

    Classification

    • Taxonomy:

    • Identifying and classifying organisms according to certain rules

    • Taxa: hierarchical levels based on evolutionary relationships


    Scientific names

    Scientific Names

    • Binomial nomenclature(two-word names)- used to assign each organism with two part name e.g. Homo sapiens

    • Universal

    • Latin-based

      • First word represents genus of organism e.g. Homo

      • Second word is specific epithet of a species within the genus e.g. sapiens

      • Always italicized as a Genus species (Homo sapiens)

      • Genus may be abbreviated e.g. Escherichia Coli as E. Coli


    Biology 106

    BACTERIA

    common

    ancestor

    (first cells)

    ARCHAEA

    Protists

    Photosynthetic

    protist

    Plants

    cell with nucleus

    EUKARYA

    Fungi

    Heterotrophic

    Protist

    Animals

    common ancestor

    Past

    Present

    Time


    Domains the eukaryote kingdoms

    Domains:\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ The Eukaryote Kingdoms

    Protists

    KINGDOM: Plants

    • Algae, protozoans, slime molds, and water molds

    • Complex single cell (sometimes filaments, colonies, or even multicellular)

    • Absorb, photosynthesize,

    • or ingest food

    • Certain algae, mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants

    • Multicellular, usually with specialized tissues, containing complex cells

    • Photosynthesize food

    1 m

    r

    Paramecium, a unicellular protozoan

    KINGDOM: Animals

    KINGDOM: Fungi

    • Sponges, worms, insects, fishes, frogs, turtles, birds, and mammals

    • Multicellular with specialized tissues containing complex cells

    • Ingest food

    • Molds, mushrooms, yeasts, and ringworms

    • Mostly multicellular filaments with specialized, complex cells

    • Absorb food1

    V

    ulpes, a red fox

    Coprinus, a shaggy mane mushroom


    Natural selection

    Natural Selection


    Organization of the biosphere

    Organization of the Biosphere

    • Individuals - ??

    • Species - ??

    • Population- Members of a species within an area

    • Community - A local collection of interacting populations

    • Ecosystem – A community plus its physical environment

    • Biosphere


    The scientific method

    The Scientific Method

    • Scientific method is a standard series of steps in gaining new knowledge through research.

      • Begins with raising a question and observation

      • Hypothesis

        • A tentative explanation for what was observed

        • Developed through inductive reasoning from specific to general


    Scientific method

    Scientific method

    • Hypothesis leads to prediction that can be tested through further observations or experimentation

    • The results areanalyzedandinterpreted: did it follow the prediction and ‘support’ the hypothesis?

    • Conclusions

    • Report in scientific journals

    • Peers review the findings and the conclusions

    • Other scientists can then attempt to duplicate or dismiss the published findings


    Scientific theory

    Scientific theory

    • Not the same as in general speech!!

    • Widely supported by observations, experiments, data etc.


    Next week

    Next week

    • Basic chemistry:

    • Chapter 2

    • (and if you’ve not done so yet…read Chapter 1)

    • Plus: We will make a start with Chapter 3


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