IEEM 552 Human-Computer System
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Presenters: Emily Au Date: 12 th December 2001 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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IEEM 552 Human-Computer System Research proposal on “ Should we? and can we replace the steering wheel with a joystick?”. Presenters: Emily Au Date: 12 th December 2001.

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Presenters: Emily Au Date: 12 th December 2001

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Presenters emily au date 12 th december 2001

IEEM 552 Human-Computer SystemResearch proposal on“Should we? and can we replace the steering wheel with a joystick?”

Presenters: Emily Au

Date: 12th December 2001


Outlines

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Outlines

  • Introduction

  • Research Objectives

  • Research Background

  • Hypotheses

  • Equipments

  • Two Experiments

  • Data Analysis

  • Conclusions

~ Emily Au ~


Technology trends 1

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Technology Trends (1)

  • “Fly-by-wire”

    • Representing automation in aviation

  • “Drive-by-wire”

    • A new vehicle platforms in which all three primary controls

      • Accelerator

      • Brakes

      • Steering

        (Bishop, 2000)

  • “by-wire” systems

    • Use electronic and optical data buses to distribute control signals from the variety of control units.

~ Emily Au ~


Technology trends 2

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Technology Trends (2)

  • More efficient use of interior space is the top priority for automobile industry.

    (Krebs, 2001)

  • Conversional mechanical component, steering column, will be replaced by joysticks which is the control of the most modern airliners.

  • Removal of the mechanical linkage between the steering wheel and the steering rack will enhance design and crashworthiness

    (Bishop, 2000)

~ Emily Au ~


Joysticks

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Joysticks

  • Single, 4-way and 8-way joystick

  • multidirectional joystick

~ Emily Au ~


Joystick in aircraft

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Joystick in Aircraft

~ Emily Au ~


Joystick in special functioned car

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Joystick in Special-Functioned car

  • Use joystick to control which similar to a conventional electric wheelchair.

  • Braking is controlled automatically when the joystick is centralized or released.

~ Emily Au ~


Joystick in automobile 1

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Joystick in Automobile (1)

  • Vehicles for the cities of tomorrow: Electric vehicles

~ Emily Au ~


Joystick in automobile 2

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Joystick in Automobile (2)

  • Driver turns the joystick from side to side.

  • Translates the movements into the optimum wheel angles and feeds back information to the driver.

  • Two possible cases

    • Low speed task: parking

      • A small movement produces a large change in direction of wheels

    • High speed task:

      • The relationship changes, so a larger movement of the joystick is needed to shift the wheels.

  • Joystick can be controlled accurately by going through practice.

  • Steering wheel have been using for so many years, so education involved for most drivers made the joystick impractical.

~ Emily Au ~


Objectives

Introduction > Research Objectives > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Objectives

  • Two research questions

    • Should the training approach for the novice drivers and the steering-wheel-experienced drivers be different or not?

    • Does the workload of operating joystick different from operating steering wheel?

  • Objective

    • To examine the drivers’ adaptability, the mental workload and performance of using steering joystick to replace the traditional steering wheel to drive.

~ Emily Au ~


Using joystick for safety purpose

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Using joystick for safety purpose

  • A human rib cages relatively compliant und a concentrated load, a concentrated load may have a tendency to cause a higher risk of chest injury.

  • During car crashing, the reaction force applied by the steering wheel to the test dummy has increasing potential to cause chest deflection.

  • Beside the steering wheel airbag, developing a side airbag can reduce the contact force caused by interacting with the steering wheel and the driver’s chest.

    (Kumagai et al., 1996)

  • However, the impact of airbag noiseand impulse from the airbag will be deteriorated as decreasing the distance between the airbag and driver.

~ Emily Au ~


Workload during driving

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Workload during driving

  • Psychology’s hardest problems often involve the simplest things because they engage mental processes that are so efficient for people unaware of them.

    (Norman, 1988)

  • Cognitive strain was identifying as a factor in flight accidents and the automated device had effectively masked the existing problem. As the result, control of the aircraft is lost.

    (Stanton & Marsden, 1996)

  • Driver of an automobile operates in a dual-task environment

    • Primary task: driving in order to maintain the vehicle on the road and avoid collisions with other objects

    • Secondary task: interacting with in-vehicle activities, because drivers only perform when they feel it is safe to do so.

      (Wierwille, 1993; cf. Dingus & Gellatly, 1997)

~ Emily Au ~


Measure workload during driving 1

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Measure workload during driving (1)

  • Three categories

    1. Measures of task performance

    • Primary task measure

      • Lateral control: Standard deviation of the lateral position (SDLP)

      • Longitudinal control: Distance or headway to cars in the front

    • Secondary task measure

      • Capability for secondary tasks: Number and duration of glances in the rearview mirror

        2. Subjective measure

    • Self-report: Allow to express what the drivers experienced.

    • Expert judgment: Use standardized techniques for assessing error made and unsafe driving behavior.

~ Emily Au ~


Measure workload during driving 2

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Measure workload during driving (2)

  • Three categories (Cont.)

    3. Physiological measure

    • Reflect cognitive activity and mental effort

      • Interbeat-interval time (IBI) by electrocardiogram (ECG)

      • Activity of three facial muscles: frontalis muscle, the corrugator supercilii and the orbicularis oris, by electromyogram (EMG)

~ Emily Au ~


5 hypotheses

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

5 Hypotheses

  • Experiment 1

    • H1: Novice driver spend shorter training duration than steering-wheel-experienced driver to achieve the same driving performance by using joystick to steer.

  • Experiment 2: Providing same training duration to novice drivers,

    • H2: drivers who using steering-joystick have less SDLP than those using steering wheel.

    • H3: drivers who using steering-joystick have longer mean headway than those using steering wheel.

    • H4: drivers who using steering-joystick have less mental workload than those using steering wheel.

    • H5: drivers who using steering-joystick have less number of errors made than those using steering wheel.

~ Emily Au ~


Equipments 1

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipments > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Equipments (1)

  • Driver Simulator is similar to the Southampton Driver Simulator, which have been used to conduct a research successfully (Stanton et al., 1997).

  • A computer running simulation software

  • A color projection monitor

  • A projection screen

  • A front portion of an automobile with removable joystick and removable steering wheel

~ Emily Au ~


Equipments 2

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipments > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Equipments (2)

  • The drivers’ action communicate with the simulator software which changes the front viewed image and the rear viewed image accordingly.

  • An eye tracker will capture secondary tasks – number and duration of the glances, in the rearview screen

  • A video camera is used to focus on the head to record a participant’s head and eye-movement and the facial expressions

  • ECG is prepared to record the IBI time

  • EMG is prepared to record the activities of facial muscles

  • All primary driving task performance will be taken every 0.5 seconds automatically.

~ Emily Au ~


Experiment 1 1

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Experiment 1 (1)

  • Examine the adaptability difference of using joystick to steer by steering-wheel-inexperienced drivers (Group A) and steering-wheel-experienced drivers (Group B).

~ Emily Au ~


Experiment 1 2

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Experiment 1 (2)

  • Participants: 20-25 years male with right dominant hand

    • Group A: 12 participants without experience in operating steering wheel

    • Group B: 12 participants with experience in operating steering wheel

    • Each subject will be paid for HK$250.

  • Design

    • Training duration: five levels (30min, 60min, 90min, 120min and 150min)

    • Provide a 30-min training in five successive days.

    • Give a simulating driving test after every 30-min training

    • Driving lecture will be provided to Group A before training

~ Emily Au ~


Experiment 1 3

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Experiment 1 (3)

  • Procedure

    • Brief the purpose of the experiment and give time table of training and tests in the following days.

    • Provide a driving lecture to Group A.

    • Fill in a Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) before stating the 30-min training everyday.

    • After 30-min training, a 10-min break is given before the simulating driving test.

    • After each test, the participant is required to fill in an questionnaire with 7-point rating to express his\her experience.

~ Emily Au ~


Experiment 2 1

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Experiment 2 (1)

  • Evaluate the difference of the driving performance and the mental workload by using joystick (Group C) and steering wheel (Group D) to steer.

~ Emily Au ~


Experiment 2 2

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Experiment 2 (2)

  • Participants: 20-25 years male with right dominant hand

    • All of them do not have driving experience

    • Group C: 12 participants will be trained to use joystick to steer

    • Group D: 12 participants will be trained to use steering wheel

    • Each subject will be paid for HK$150.

  • Design

    • Driving lecture will be provided to all participants before training

    • Training duration is the same in both groups

    • Training schedule will be determined from the result of Experiment 1.

    • Each participant is required to take two identical simulating driving tests

      • Participant in Group C use joystick to perform the tests

      • Participant in Group D use steering wheel to perform the tests

~ Emily Au ~


Experiment 2 3

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Experiment 2 (3)

  • Procedure

    • Brief the purpose of the experiment and give time table of training and tests in the following days.

    • Provide a driving lecture to all participants.

    • Fill in a Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) before stating the training and tests.

    • Tentatively, training and driving tests will be scheduled in different days, but each participant will have two tests in the same day.

    • 5-min practice before the first test and 5-min break between tests are provided to the participant.

    • After each test, the participant is required to fill in an questionnaire to express his\her experience.

~ Emily Au ~


Data analysis 1

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Data Analysis (1)

  • Experiment 1

    • Three types of responses: SDLP, headway and number of errors made

      • As data for each participant are recorded every 0.5 second, the SDLP and headway will present in the way of averaging the data over time.

      • In each test, the number of errors made is presented in an accumulated value.

    • Use ANOVA to investigate the difference of SDLP, headway and number of errors made between two groups and within each group.

    • There are five levels of training duration. If SDLP, headway and number of error made has significant difference within a group

      • t-test will be used to discover the cause of the difference.

      • The adaptability in each group can be understood

    • Response to H1

~ Emily Au ~


Data analysis 2

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Data Analysis (2)

  • Experiment 2

    • Four types of responses: SDLP, headway, number of errors made, and number and duration of glances

      • SDLP, headway and number of errors are presented in the same format as Experiment 1

      • The number and duration of glances (secondary task) are also presented in an accumulated value.

    • We expected that there is no significant difference between two identical tests within each group

      • The average of of fours types of responses can be used to do statistical analysis

      • Tentatively, ANOVA is planned to use to determine the driving performance difference between two groups

    • Response to H2, H3, H4 and H5

~ Emily Au ~


Data analysis 3

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusion

Data Analysis (3)

  • Experiment 1 and Experiment 2

    • Descriptive statistic can be used to analyze the pattern of heart rate (IBI), and the activity of facial muscles and facial expression.

    • In the 7-point rating questionnaire, Wilcoxon signed rank test can be used to identify whether the participant’s feeling different in two groups in vary dimensions.

~ Emily Au ~


Conclusions

Introduction > Research Objective > Research Background > Hypotheses > Equipment > Two Experiments > Data Analysis > Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Contributions

    • Two experiments are used to

      • Examine the adaptability difference of using joystick to steer by steering-wheel-inexperienced drivers (Group A) and steering-wheel-experienced drivers (Group B).

      • Evaluate the difference of the driving performance and the mental workload by using joystick (Group C) and steering wheel (Group D) to steer.

    • The result of the experiment can help to answer the question – “Should we? and can we replace the steering wheel with a joystick?”

    • Plan for the training and re-training program for user with different driving experience to use joystick to steer.

    • Understand and plan for re-design the workload while using joystick to steer.

~ Emily Au ~


Thank you

Thank You !!


Presenters emily au date 12 th december 2001

~ Emily Au ~


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