Environmental history learning from the past
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Environmental History: Learning from the Past. Environmental History of the US 4 Eras. The environmental history of the US can be divided into 4 eras: Tribal Frontier Early conservation Environmental. Environmental History of the US Tribal Era. Tribal Era- Native Americans

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Environmental History: Learning from the Past

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Environmental history learning from the past

Environmental History: Learning from the Past


Environmental history of the us 4 eras

Environmental History of the US4 Eras

  • The environmental history of the US can be divided into 4 eras:

    • Tribal

    • Frontier

    • Early conservation

    • Environmental


Environmental history of the us tribal era

Environmental History of the USTribal Era

  • Tribal Era-

    • Native Americans

    • 10,000 years before European settlement

    • Slash and burn/shifting cultivation

    • Small population

    • Low environmental impact


Environmental history of the us frontier era

Environmental History of the USFrontier Era

  • Frontier Era-

    • Early 1600’s—European settlement

    • Frontier environmental worldview—vast and inexhaustible resources

    • Tribes and land conquered

    • Publicprivate land

    • Government declared frontier officially closed in 1890


Environmental history of the us early conservation era 1832 1870

Environmental History of the USEarly Conservation Era1832-1870

  • Early Conservation Era-

    • Alarm at resource depletion

    • Urged part of unspoiled wilderness be protected as legacy to future generations

    • Thoreau (Life in the Woods) and other writers addressed these issues but not taken seriously

    • Active role of government increases

    • Environmental change within democracies involves voicing opinions through elected officials, legislation, budgeting, and lobbying by special interest groups.


Environmental history of the us early conservation era 1870 1930

Environmental History of the USEarly Conservation Era1870-1930

  • Actions ↑ role of government

    and private citizens in

    resource conservation

  • 1891-Forest Reserve Act established federal government as responsible for protecting public lands

  • 1892-John Muir founded Sierra Club and led preservationist movement

  • 1890-Yosemite National Park


Environmental history of the us early conservation era 1870 1930 cont

Environmental History of the USEarly Conservation Era1870-1930 cont….

  • Theodore Roosevelt 1901-1908

    • Established wildlife reserves and tripled size of national reserve

    • President given power to designate public land as federal wildlife reserves

    • 1905-US Forest Service

    • 1906-Antiquities Act President can protect areas on federal lands as national monuments (Grand Canyon)

    • “Golden Age of Conservation”


Environmental history of the us early conservation era 1870 1930 cont1

Environmental History of the USEarly Conservation Era1870-1930 cont….

  • 1916-National Park Service Act creates National Park System


Environmental history of the us early conservation era 1930 1960

Environmental History of the USEarly Conservation Era1930-1960

  • Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR)

    • 1933-Civil Conservation Corp (CCC)

    • 2 million people employed

    • Restore degraded environment, built dams, etc.

  • 1940’s and 50’s had little change


  • Environmental history of the us environmental era 1960 s

    Environmental History of the USEnvironmental Era1960’s

    • Environmental Era-

      • Citizens began modern environmental movement

      • 1962-Rachel Carson published Silent Spring about pesticide effects

      • 1963-Clean Air Act

      • 1964 Wilderness Act protecting tracts of land in the Wilderness System

      • 1968-Garrett Hardin

      • 1969-Spaceship Earth worldview


    Environmental history of the us environmental era 1970 s

    Environmental History of the USEnvironmental Era1970’s

    • Environmental decade

    • 1970-1st Earth Day

    • Nixon

      • 1970-EPA established

      • 1973-Endagered Species Act

      • 1978-Bureau of Land Management started to manage public lands through Federal Land Policy and Management Act


    Environmental history of the us environmental era 1970 s cont

    Environmental History of the USEnvironmental Era1970’s cont…..

    • Jimmy Carter

      • 1977-Department of Energy (DOE)

        to reduce dependence on foreign oil

      • 1977-Clean Water Act

      • 1980-Superfund created in response to Love Canal to clean up abandoned hazardous waste

      • Tripled land in National Wilderness system and doubled land in the National Park System


    Environmental history of the us environmental era 1980 s

    Environmental History of the USEnvironmental Era1980’s

    • Anti-environmental movement formed

      to weaken laws of 60’s and 70’s

    • Ronald Reagan

      • Increased private energy, mineral

        development and timber cutting

      • Funding for environmental resources cut


    Environmental history of the us environmental era 1990 2004 cont

    Environmental History of the USEnvironmental Era1990-2004 cont….

    • George Bush Sr.

      • Weakened protections on almost as much public lands as Teddy Roosevelt protected

      • Increase fossil fuel use

      • Relaxation on air and water quality standards

      • 1992 attended the United Nations Conference, Earth Summit, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to discuss environmental issues


    Environmental history of the us environmental era 1990 2004

    Environmental History of the USEnvironmental Era1990-2004

    • Clinton protected more public lands as national monuments than any other Pres.

    • 1997-Kyoto Japan 161 nations

      met to negotiate a treaty to decrease emissions and slow climate change


    Environmental history of the us environmental era 1990 20041

    Environmental History of the USEnvironmental Era1990-2004

    • George Bush Jr

      • Just like dad

      • Withdrew US totally from Kyoto treaty

    • We’ll see what’s next!

    • Frontline’s Hot Politics


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