The birth of a nation chapter 2
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The Birth of a Nation Chapter 2. Mrs. C Strickland and Ms. K Boring. Location and Standard. Standard: USHC 1—The student will demonstrate an understanding of the conflicts between regional and national interest in the development of democracy in the United States. Indicators:

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The birth of a nation chapter 2

The Birth of a NationChapter 2

Mrs. C Strickland and Ms. K Boring


Location and standard

Location and Standard

  • Standard:

    • USHC 1—The student will demonstrate an understanding of the conflicts between regional and national interest in the development of democracy in the United States.

  • Indicators:

    • USHC-1.2 (representative government, English impact)

    • USHC-1.3 (Declaration of Independence, American Revolution)

    • USHC-1.4 (Articles of Confederation, Constitution of 1787, Philadelphia Convention, ratification of the US Constitution)

    • USHC-1.5 (Constitution’s protections, Bill of Rights, federalism, separation of powers, checks and balances)

    • USHC-1.6 (two-party system, George Washington, Federalists)

    • USHC-1.7 (John Marshall, Supreme Court, national government)

  • EOC Book Location: pgs. 35-60

  • Text Book Location: pgs. 83-199


2 1 the american revolution

2.1 The American Revolution


The founding fathers

The “Founding Fathers”

  • political leaders/statesmen who were in the American Revolution:

    • signed the United States Declaration of Independence

    • In the American Revolutionary War

    • Established the United States Constitution

      • “Framer” (statesmen who created the Constitution)


Are you a loyalist or patriot you decide

Are You a Loyalist or Patriot?YOU DECIDE


There s a new school in town

There’s a New School In Town

Westside High School—

  • All school rules will apply PLUS:

  • Any referral will result in a $100.00 fine (tax).

  • Any D or F gained in a class will require Saturday school AND summer school plus a fine of $25 per D or F PER semester.

  • Paper fee/tax for papers

  • Cell phones and iPods will be confiscated and crushed.

  • One fight will result in immediate expulsion

Anderson Democratic Charter High School—

  • Student will vote on new school policies.

  • Students will not be fined for Ds or Fs.

  • There will be no AP or honors courses.

  • There will be no sports programs.


I loyalist or patriot

Loyalist: colonist who remained loyal to the Crown (Great Britain)

I. Loyalist or Patriot?

Patriot: colonist who wanted to break from England


Loyalist or patriot

Loyalist or Patriot?

  • “Gentlemen may cry, Peace, Peace-- but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!”

    (P. Henry)


Loyalist or patriot1

Loyalist or Patriot?

  • "If I must be enslaved, let it be by a KING at least, and not by a parcel of upstart, lawless Committeemen. If I must be devoured, let me be devoured by the jaws of a lion, and not gnawed to death by rats and vermin". (S. Seabury)


Early colonial circumstances 1600s 1700s

Early Colonial Circumstances (1600s-1700s)

  • Colonists wanted democracy:

    • Each colony established a representative assembly with a right to levy taxes

      • By the American Revolution, most colonies were changed to royal colonies

  • England’s Problems and a Change of Thinking:

    • English Civil War (1642-1651)

    • King James II was overthrown in the Glorious Revolution, replaced by William and Mary (1688)

      • Parliament gains rights

    • After the GR, John Locke pushes natural rights, social contract, authority of government in the hands of the people


Join or die colonial unity needed

Join, or Die—Colonial Unity Needed


Colonial and english tensions build

Colonial and English Tensions Build…

1754—The French and Indian War:

Britain fought against France and its Native American allies for land in the United States

1660-England started the NAVIGATION ACTS: British colonies could only sell certain goods to England. The few goods allowed to be sold to other countries were taxed.

1750

The War for Independence

Late 1600s—

Europe = mercantilism.

England needed colonies for favorable balance of trade.

Export MORE than import.

After 1720—

England allowed the colonies to control themselves (Salutary neglect)

--Colonies taxed themselves (except Nav. Acts)

--Had their own governments


1754 the french and indian war

1754—The French and Indian War:

  • England Struggles at First:

    • Guerrilla warfare VS. gentleman’s warfare.

  • ACTIVITY: View this video clip. Create a T-Chart to compare guerilla and gentleman’s warfare. You will put THREE qualities on each side which make the warfare's DIFFERENT. As you watch the clip, you will decide the qualities of each warfare. *The British use gentleman’s and the Native Americans use guerrilla.


T chart example three different qualities

T-Chart Example(Three different qualities)

Cats

Dogs

Growl when they feel threatened

enjoy chasing cars

Bark to warn

  • Purr when happy

  • Independent

  • Like to sleep in high places


Video clip

VIDEO CLIP

  • Last of the Mohicans:

    • Time:

    • 15:28-21:25

    • 1:11:50-1:20:20


1754 the french and indian war1

1754—The French and Indian War:

  • 9 years of fighting = HUGE debt for England

  • France finally gave up claims to Canada and all land East of the Mississippi

  • France’s defeat = England is the ONLY true colonial power.

B/c of this huge debt, England abandons salutary neglect and starts to enforce mercantilism and taxes on the colonists.


1754 the french and indian war2

1754—The French and Indian War:


Colonial and english tensions build1

Colonial and English Tensions Build…

1763—Proclamation of 1763 issued by King George III.

(forbade colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains—MANY ignored this request)

The War for Independence

1760—Writs of Assistance started being issued.

Writs of Assistance: general search warrants allowing British authorities to search whatever they wanted for any reason.

Main use—board and search colonial ship to enforce the Navigation Acts. (Smuggling)

Supposed to be for the good of the people, because the Native Americans were attacking the settlers there.


Colonial and english tensions build2

Colonial and English Tensions Build…

While the colonists have been upset and felt like their rights were being taken away—these new laws and taxes INFURIATED them.

King of England/Parliament:

YOU WILL PAY THESE TAXES!

1750

The War for Independence

1760s—Laws and Taxes Passed By Parliament(to pay for the French and Indian War).

~The Quartering Act, The Stamp Act, The Declaratory Act, Townshend Acts…etc.

The Colonists


Activity the colonial english law book

Activity: The Colonial English Law Book

  • Each page of your law booklet will include:

    • the name of the law

    • its explanation of how colonists are required to act because of the law.

    • One colored picture which will help the reader understand the law

    • *You will need your Chrome Books or phone to look this up.

  • You are creating a Colonial English Law Book.

  • You will need to include:

    • the Sugar Act of 1764

    • the Quartering Act of 1765

    • the Stamp Act of 1765

    • the Declaratory Act of 1766

    • The Townshend Acts of 1767


The sugar act of 1764

The Sugar Act of 1764

  • Importation duties placed on sugar, molasses, wine, silk, cloth, tropical fruits (indirect tax)


The quartering act of 1765

The Quartering Act of 1765

  • Colonists were required to supply and house British soldiers in North America.


The stamp act of 1765

The Stamp Act of 1765

  • Taxed nearly all printed material, by requiring it to bear a government stamp. (DIRECT tax)


The stamp act of 17651

The Stamp Act of 1765

  • The Stamp Act Congress

    • Delegates met together after the Stamp Act

    • James Otis: “No taxation without representation!”

      • Colonists had no representation in Parliament, and Parliament was taxing them!

      • Protest: Colonies imposed a boycott of British goods.

        • To refuse to use or buy certain goods/services


Declaratory act of 1766

Declaratory Act of 1766

  • Stated that Parliament had the authority to impose laws on the colonies.

    • Ended the Stamp Act, but passed the Declaratory Act on the SAME day.

  • Underlying Tone: England was implying that it expected the colonists to comply with Britain and her laws


The townshend acts of 1767

The Townshend Acts of 1767

  • Taxed imported goods like glass and tea

    • The colonial reaction to this was so violent, that British troops were sent in mass to Boston.


The sons of liberty also daughters of liberty

The Sons of Liberty (Also—Daughters of Liberty)

  • Formed after Stamp Act, heavily involved after the Townshend Acts

  • Group of radical patriots formed to protect the rights of the colonists, “secret” society, headed by Samuel Adams— “The Father of Independence”

  • Enforced the boycotts by using violence

  • Common Form of Violence: shop smashing, house burning, tar and feathering, hangings


The birth of a nation chapter 2

  • Video Clip: Tar & Feathers ohn Adams Tar and Feather Scene:

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hFWZ925zK0A


Colonial and english tensions build3

Colonial and English Tensions Build…

1770—The Boston Massacre: British soldiers felt threatened by a mob of angry protesters and fired shots that left several colonists dead.

1750


Video clip1

Video Clip:

  • The Boston Massacre Reenactment Explanation—”Revolution in Boston”


Colonial and english tensions build4

Colonial and English Tensions Build…

5 Acts of Coercive Acts:

Boston Port Act—closed down Boston Port

Massachusetts Government Act—brought the control of the Massachusetts government into the hands of the British government

Administration of Justice Act—allowed governor to move trials of royal officials to England

The Quartering Act—troops could be quartered in homes/buildings

The Quebec Act—took some land away from the colonies.

1773—The Boston Tea Party: Sons of Liberty and other radicals raided ships and threw British tea overboard

1750

The War for Independence

1773—The Coercive/Intolerable Acts: English Parliament response to Boston Tea Party, called “intolerable” by the colonists due to harshness


Colonial and english tensions build5

July 4 1776—The Declaration of Independence: Second Continental Congress declared independence from England

1776 (January)—Common Sense: Thomas Paine publishes the famous pamphlet and the case for independence. Many were swayed to the cause.

1775—Second Continental Congress: meet to discuss and find a resolution with England, peace instead of war

Colonial and English Tensions Build…

1775—Lexington and Concord: British went to seize colonial arms at Concord and were met by colonial militia at Lexington.

“Shot heard round the world”

1774—First Continental Congress: every colony EXCEPT Georgia sent representatives to deal with crisis.

*Sent letter to king—stating they had no representation so should govern themselves – direct result of the Intolerable acts!

1750

The War for Independence


Video clip2

Video Clip:

  • First Continental Congress—America The Story of Us

  • The Boston Tea Party—America the Story of Us


The declaration of independence

The Declaration of Independence

  • Author: Thomas Jefferson

    • Egalitarianism—idea that all men are created equal

    • Inalienable rights—natural rights that the government could not take away

      • “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness”

    • Included a list of complaints against the king

  • Influenced By: John Locke and the Enlightenment


The declaration of independence problems and contradictions

The Declaration of Independence Problems and Contradictions

  • Problem 1: Colonies became states and made their OWN constitutions


The declaration of independence problems and contradictions1

The Declaration of Independence Problems and Contradictions

  • Activity:What is the second problem/great contradiction?

  • Using the Declaration of Independence, you will on your own discover what the second problem is…please follow directions.


The declaration of independence problems and contradictions2

The Declaration of Independence Problems and Contradictions

  • SO WHAT IS IT?

  • WHAT’S THE GREAT CONTRADICTION OF THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE?


The declaration of independence problems and contradictions3

The Declaration of Independence Problems and Contradictions

  • Problem 2: The Great Contradiction

  • all men are created equal?

    • Slaves?

    • Natives?

    • Women?

    • Minorities?

  • The DOI would spark debates that would eventually lead to heated division and the Civil War


Us advantages in the war for independence

US Advantages in the War for Independence

  • Drive and determination:

    • Fighting for their homeland and the right to govern themselves

    • Knew if they lost, they’d be hung for treason

  • Knowledge:

    • Fighting on their own front, know the land

    • Had fought alongside the British and were familiar with their tactics


George washington

The Leaders of the Armies

George Washington

  • Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army

Lord Charles Cornwallis

  • A Colonel in the British Army

    • Most famous leader and active in the Southern Campaigns


The northern war

The Northern War

  • The Battle of Saratoga (New York):

    • General Horatio Gates in charge of Continentals

    • Key Victory: convinced the French the US could possibly win

      • Result: France and the US forged an alliance


The northern war1

The Northern War

  • Valley Forge (Pennsylvania):

    • Harsh winter

    • No supplies or clothes

    • Many men died, became too sick to serve

    • After enduring VF: Washington’s men more determined and better trained then ever


The birth of a nation chapter 2

  • Video Clip

  • America the Story of Us

  • 24:47-31:18, CD 1 (Episode 2, Revolution)

  • Questions in packet


The southern war

The Southern War

  • The “Palmetto State”—South Carolina

    • Name given after the attack on Fort Moultrie

    • US victory, British retreat

    • Fort made of palmetto trees, absorbed the blows of British artillery


The southern war1

The Southern War

  • Southern Colonial Leaders

    • Practiced guerilla warfare

    • More interested in inflicting damage then winning battles

Thomas Sumter

The Carolina Gamecock

Francis Marion

The Swamp Fox


The southern war2

The Southern War

  • “Bloody Ban” and the Green Dragoons

    • Green Dragoons: British Light Calvary led by Banastre Tarleton

    • Known for cruelty and “Tarleton’s Quarter”

      • Refusal to accept surrenders, killed all prisoners

    • Banastre Tarleton—most hated British soldier, used for Colonial propaganda


The southern war3

The Southern War

  • Tarleton about Francis Marion—

    • “as for this damned old fox, the Devil himself could not catch him.”


Yorktown

Yorktown

  • Cornwallis originally hoped to gain supplies, but instead became pinned between the US and the Ocean

  • French ships provided a blockade—keeping British ships from reaching Cornwallis

  • October 19,1781—Cornwallis surrendered to Washington


The treaty of paris

The Treaty of Paris

  • Signed in 1783, officially ended the war

  • US independence recognized by the British government


Worldwide impact of the american revolution

Worldwide Impact of the American Revolution

  • US ideas spread abroad

  • Helped ignite other movements:

    • French Revolution

    • The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen


Centuries

Centuries

  • How can you decided was century something is?

  • What years are the 15th century, 16th century, 17th century, 18th century?

  • What century do we live in?


Video clip3

Video Clip

  • The Patriot

    • 1:02:06-1:11:00 (Start at scene 12)

    • Questions are in packet.

  • Before film—discuss term “militia”


Review video

Review Video:

  • America the Story of Us—The Boston Massacre


Video clip4

Video Clip:

  • John Adams—The Declaration of Independence


Video clip5

Video Clip:

  • America the Story of Us—Declaration of Independence


Practice

Practice

  • 2.1 Questions on pgs. 42-43


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