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CRIME AND DEVELOPMENT A Complex relationship. Ernesto U. Savona Professor of Criminology at Università Cattolica, Milan and Director of TRANSCRIME www.transcrime.it. Economic and Social Council, United Nations Geneva, 22 July 2012 panel discussion.

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CRIME AND DEVELOPMENT

A Complex relationship

Ernesto U. Savona

Professor of Criminology at Università Cattolica,

Milan and Director of TRANSCRIME

www.transcrime.it

Economic and Social Council, United Nations Geneva, 22 July 2012

panel discussion

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STARTING POINT: the three scenarios

United Nations have defined three possible scenario to integrate security and criminal justice into the post-2015 agenda.

First and second scenarios are designed to formulate common goals and measures to address specific aspects of crime reduction and good governance.The third scenario envisages a parallel accountability monitoring system based on national goals, targets and indicators.

Accordingto me, thisthird scenario is the better tool to focus on the relationshipbetween crime and development, since it could capture the specificities of each country. Thisisbecause the relationshipbetween crime, drugs and developmentvaries . Let me concentrate on the relationshipbetween crime and development, sincedrugsis a variablewhichenters in thisone

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CRIME AND DEVELOPMENT differentcombinations

If Crime and Development influenceeachother, itisnotautomaticthat more developmentproducesless

crime. The sameis for the reverse relationship: more crime doesnotautomatically produce lessdevelopment. There are twomainvariableswhich, linked to the previoustwo, givedifferentdirections to the relationship: rule of law whichmeans culture of legality, lesscorruption, more justice etc. and Organized Crime.

When the rule of law lacks and/or Organized Crime grows the relationshipbetween crime and developmentisdistorted. There are manyexamples….

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THE COMPLEX RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CRIME AND DEVELOPMENT: some examples

Ruleof Law and Maritime Piracy

Source: Transcrime elaboration on International Maritime Bureau and World Bank data

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Mexico: violence and economic growth

THE COMPLEX RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CRIME AND DEVELOPMENT: some examples

Source: Transcrime elaboration on INEGI data

  • Mexico represents an example of the complex association between crime and development. The economicgrowth of the last 15 yearscorresponds to a dramatic rise in the intentionalhomiciderates. The motivations of this apparent inconsistency are largely connected with incomeinequality, corruption, drugs and organized crime. They are allinterrelated
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Italy: the influence of the Mafias on the development

THE COMPLEX RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CRIME AND DEVELOPMENT: some examples

GDP per capita (EUR)

Index of Mafia Presence

Source: Transcrime elaboration on ISTAT and Ministry of Interior data

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Italy: the influence of the Mafias on the development

CRIME AND DEVELOPMENT: some examples

  • Organized crime could both caused of and be caused by the development dynamics. One the onehand, the economic backwardness and the lack of institutional control have facilitated the emergence of organized crime. On the other hand, the long-term presence of organized crime has immobilized the development of the legal economy, increasing the economic gap with the North.
  • The Italian experience shows that the relationship between crime and development is connected with the type and characteristics of the crime involved and the social background.
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From the latest examples, it emerges clearly how the presence of organized crime and its peculiarities are fundamental aspects to be considered in the analysis.

  • Therefore, a specific effort for improving the knowledge and the data sharing and collection on this topic should be a fundamental part of the post-2015 development agenda.
  • In particular, the implementation of dedicated methodologies and tools for measuring and revealing the impacts that organized crime has on the social and economic fabric of a country should be supported

ORGANIZED CRIME AS A DETERMINING FACTOR

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Post-2015 development agenda should enlarge its focus beyond the analysis of the extent of crime or of the criminal justice effectiveness.

  • Closer attention should be paid to the analysis of the criminal opportunity structure that could enable the specific criminality or could undermine the efficacy and efficiency of the adopted policies.
  • As an example, the analysis of the dynamics and characteristics of the illicit markets in a country, and the structural, legal and cultural features that could facilitate them are relevant information for understanding their impact on the social development and on the economic growth. This knowledge is also fundamental for orienting and implementing more focused and effective policies.

ANALYZING THE CRIMINAL OPPORTUNITIES

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CRIME AND DEVELOPMENT

A Complex relationship

Ernesto U. Savona

Professor of Criminologyat Università Cattolica, Milan

and Director of TRANSCRIME

www.transcrime.it

Economic and Social Council, United Nations Geneva, 22 July 2012

panel discussion

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