Chapter 4 - Experience of Empire: 18 th C. America Religious Revivals in Provncial Societies + Clash of Political Cultures. Elizabeth Duran Judith Guevara Ivanna Incer. Pgs. 109-114 . Religious Revivals in Provincial Society.
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Elizabeth DuranJudith GuevaraIvannaIncer
“Great Awakening”-Protestant revivals occurred in different times/places.-(1730’s) New England makes first move towards spiritual awakening. (Within a decade these revivals burned out)-Revivals were more important in Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Virginia.-Not one religion or sect monopolized awakening.-Before Awakening, Americas complained Congregational ministers only cared about dull scholastic matters, not touching the hearts of people. South experienced shortage of ordained ministers.
Jonathan Edwards:(local Congregational minister) Reminded parishioners their eternal fate had been determined by an omnipotent God. (Ideals embraced Calvinism) Edwards was a brilliant theologian, but lacked the ability to sustain revival.
George Whitefield:-Extraordinarily effective public speaker. Came to symbolise powerful cultural forces transforming the Atlantic World. -Brought all kinds of people together; rich, poor, young, and old. -A Calvinist that welcomed Protestants and spoke from any church, as long as it was Christian. -Embraced technology, such as the printing press, to help spread revival. -Itinerant Preacher; traveled from colony to colony to preach.
Gilbert Tennent:-Presbyterian of Scots-Irish background. Educated in middle colonies.-Made sermon “On the Danger of an Unconverted Ministry” (1741); set off storm of established and insulted ministers.-”New Lights”, people who thronged to hear itineraries. -Did not condone excesses of “Great Awakening”, but attacked Church’s formal teachings
James Davenport:-Deranged revivalist in Connecticut that played upon popular emotion (1742) At night he danced naked, shrieking and laughing. (LOL) Urged people to burn books by authors who did not believe in Davenport’s New Light. Later apologized for behavior.
Positive Changes in Society-Founded several important centers of higher learning; Princeton University (1746); Dartmouth (1769); Brown (1764); Rutgers (1766). -Encouraged men/women to speak up against authority and take active roles in their salvation.-Itineran ministers also preached to slaves. Example:
Richard Allen: (Founder of African Methodist Episcopal Church) Owed freedom to minister who showed his master the sinfulness of slavery. Also brought awareness of a larger community; united colonies for easier interaction.
The English Constitution-Constitution was not formal written document. Divided into 3 main parts:*Monarch at the top who was advised by court favorites.*House of Lords: Body of 180- aristocrats and 26 Anglican bishops as upper house of Parliament. *House of Commons: 558 members elected by constituencies
The Reality of British Policies-Original plan to represent 3 different socioeconomic groups didn’t work. Only represented interests of Britain’s elite. -House of Commons did not acknowledge interest of the people; (1715) Less than 20% of males had the right to vote.
-Electoral Districts varied in size. Some representatives were chosen by a handful of people. Small buroughs, where this occurred, often influenced constituencies. -Group called the Commonwealthmen spoke out against corruption.
-Never looked like the House of Commons they based their government on. Instead, colonies developed a “middle class democracy” where white males freely expressed judgments in politics. No influence from “rotten boroughs” in Britain.
William Shirley:(Held office in Mass., 1741-57) Attempted to re-create Britain’s political system in colonies. Clashed with colonists’ perception of politics, as they believed in balanced constitution -Rise of assemblies began to shape American culture by mid 18th C. Law became Anglicized. Various local legal practices became standardized. -As colonies began to form a stable colonial legislature, differences between Britain and its colonies grew. Colonists became aware of their “cultural identity” through these differences.