Greenhouse gas mitigation options from rice field
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Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options from Rice Field. Sirintornthep Towprayoon The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi Bangmod, Bangkok, Thailand 10140.

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Greenhouse gas mitigation options from rice field

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options from Rice Field

Sirintornthep Towprayoon

The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment

King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi

Bangmod, Bangkok, Thailand 10140

Presented at In-session workshop on Climate Change Mitigation 19 Bonn 2004, Maritim Hotel,Bonn


Background
Background

  • Rice fields contribute approximately 9-13 percent of the global greenhouse gases

  • Methane and nitrous oxide are the dominant GHG emission


Mechanism
Mechanism

  • To implement mitigation options need well understanding of the emission mechanisms

  • Interaction between rice plant, microbe, the environmental condition in the soil, and the cultural condition of the farmer

  • Methane produced by methanogen under anaerobic condition in the rice field

  • Nitrous oxide produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria under the anoxic condition

  • Rice plant, during reproductive growth excrete some essential nutrient and activated microbial growth



fertilizer

Growth and development

Height, mass,density

Rice varieties

Emission

Production

soil properties

Root exudates

Indigenous Microorganisms


water regimes

Height, mass,density

Rice varieties

Emission

Production

Anaerobic and anoxic condition

Indigenous Microorganisms


Mitigation options
Mitigation options

  • Factor affecting GHG emission

    • Land preparation

    • Seed preparation

    • Rice varieties

    • Fertilizer application

    • Water management

    • Harvesting and fallow period


Land preparation
Land preparation

Dry land level

Wet land level



Seed preparation
Seed preparation

Direct seeding

Pre-germinated seed and seedlings

Transplanting or Casting



The choice of mitigation options
The choice of mitigation options

  • Ultimate goal : High yield and GHGs reduction

  • Economic aspect

    • Low cost : investment, labor, machinery

    • Market : positive expandable market, good price

    • Governmental subsidy

  • Social aspect

    • Acceptable by farmers

    • Easy to implement

    • Undisturbed farmer way of life



Options chosen
Options chosen

  • Water management

    • Reduce GHG

    • Economic : not involved with investment

    • Easy to implement and being accepted by farmer

  • Shifting fertilizer application

    • Reduce GHG

    • Economic : less invesment


Options of water management
Options of water management

  • In common practice, water was drained out of the field during vegetative period.

  • Drainage reduce methane but promote nitrous oxide

  • Shifting drainage time from vegetative period to reproductive period help reduce methane production and emission

  • Shorten drainage day also help reduce nitrous oxide emission


Methane emission and soil redox potential from 4 different drainage rice fields
Methane emission and soil redox potential from 4 different drainage rice fields


Nitrous oxide and methane emission from 4 different drainage rice fields
Nitrous oxide and methane emission from 4 different drainage rice fields



Yield and ghg emission
Yield and GHG Emission

  • Area of irrigated rice field (local practice) is 3 times greater than area of rain fed rice field ( continuous flooding)

  • Three scenarios have been set up

    • Continuous flooding and local practice (base case)

    • Continuous flooding and midseason drainage

    • Continuous flooding and multiple drainage

    • All midseason drainage



Option of fertilizer application
Option of fertilizer application

  • Two time of fertilizer application : basal fertilizer and top dressing fertilizer

  • In general, urea is use as the common fertilizer

  • Ammonium sulphate (inhibit methanogen) and ammonium phosphate ( promote rice plant growth ) was applied in substitute to urea




Conclusion 1
Conclusion(1)

  • GHG emission from rice field is ‘survival emission’

  • The implementation need to be carefully considered

  • The options should not impact on the farmer’s way of life as well as theirs investment but should promote theirs income


Conclusion 2
Conclusion(2)

  • Aprox. 25 percent of GHG reduction could achieve in comparison to base case

  • Options to reduce GHGs impact on rice yield

  • Optimizing between GHG reduction and yield need to be concerned


Acknowledgement
Acknowledgement

  • Thailand research fund

  • Ms. Saipin Poonkaew and Ms. Kruamas Smaghan



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