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Examples of Organic Molecule Projects. Honors Chemistry Spring 2009. Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid ( Proper). By Jon Ericksen and Kathryn Marbury. Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is known as many more commonly used names, such as:. *2,4-D * Weedtrine -II *Aqua- Kleen *Barrage

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Examples of organic molecule projects

Examples of Organic Molecule Projects

Honors Chemistry

Spring 2009


By jon ericksen and kathryn marbury

Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid

(Proper)

By Jon Ericksen and Kathryn Marbury


Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is known as many more commonly used names such as

Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is known as many more commonly used names, such as:

*2,4-D

*Weedtrine-II

*Aqua-Kleen

*Barrage

*Plantgard

*Lawn-Keep

*Planotox

*Malerbane.


Empirical and molecular formula

Empirical and Molecular Formula

C8H6Cl2O3


Molar mass of c 8 h 6 cl 2 o 3

Molar Mass of C8H6Cl2O3

C x 8= 96.08

H x 6= 6.06

Cl x 2= 70.90 = 221.04 g/mol

O x 3= 48.00


H

H

Halide

O

Ether

H

C

C

O

C

Cl

C

C

C

OH

H

C

C

H

Cl

Ethyl Group

Alcohol

CycloHexyl Group

Halide

Polar Bond

Structural Formula

Nonpolar Bond


O

O

Cl

OH

Cl

Skeletal Formula


Space-Filling

Formula

Carbon

Oxygen

Chlorine

Hydrogen


2 4 d s uses
2,4-D’s Uses

  • 2,4-D is used and sold in many different forms in a wide variety of brand-name products and is used in over 1,500 herbicide products. 2,4-D is most commonly used for:

  • Weed control in lawns and other turf

  • No-till burndown

  • Control of weeds and brush along fences and highway and railroad rights of way

  • Conifer release (control of broad-leaf trees in conifer plantings)

  • Grass hayfields and pastures

  • Cereal grains

  • Corn and sorghum (occasionally)

  • As a synthetic auxin analogue


How it s made
How It’s Made

2,4-D is commonly prepared by the condensation of 2,4-dichlorophenol with monochloroacetic acid in a strongly alkaline medium at moderate temperatures (Canada, NRC, 1978; Sittig 1980; QueHee & Sutherland, 1981), or by the chlorination of phenoxyacetic acid, but this method leads to a product with a high content of 2,4-dichlorophenol and other impurities (Melnikov, l97l). Higher reaction temperatures and alkaline conditions during the manufacture of 2,4-D increase the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin (CDD) by-products (Fig. 2). The alkali metal salts of 2,4-D are produced by the reaction of 2,4-D with the appropriate metal base.


How it s made cont d
How It’s Made Cont’d

Amine salts are obtained by reacting stoichiometric quantities of amine and 2,4-D in a compatible solvent (QueHee & Sutherland, 1974, 1981). Esters are formed by acid-catalysedesterification with azeotropic distillation of water (QueHee & Sutherland, 1981) or by a direct synthesis in which the appropriate ester of monochloroacetic acid is reacted with dichlorophenol to form the 2,4-D ester (Canada, NRC, 1978).


History

2,4-D was developed during World War II by a British team, aiming to increase crop yields for a nation at war. When it was commercially released in1946, it became the first successful selective herbicide and allowed for greatly enhanced weed control in wheat, maize (corn), rice, and similar cereal grass crops, because it only kills dicots, leaving behind monocots. 2,4-D is the third most commonly used herbicide in North America and the most widely used herbicide in the world.


Ascorbic acid

ASCORBIC ACID

CAITLIN ACAP

PATRICK WALKER


Names

PROPER

L-3-Ketothreohexuronic acid lactone

3-keto-L-gulofuranolactone

3-oxo-L-gulofuranolactone

L-threo-hex-2-enonic acid, gamma lactone

COMMON

Vitamin C

L-ascorbic acid

L-xyloascorbic acid

Antiscorbutic vitamin

Antiscorbic vitamin

NAMES




Molar mass
MOLAR MASS

  • C6= 12.011 x 6 = 72.066

  • H8= 1.008 x 8 = 8.064

  • O6= 15.999 x 6 = 95.994

    72.066

    8.064

    95.994

    176.124 g/mol


Structural formula
STRUCTURAL FORMULA

  • Functional Group: Ester

  • Hexyl Carbon Group

  • Alcohol (4)

  • Alkene




Ascorbic acid1
ASCORBIC ACID

  • KEY:

  • (HOMEMADE MODEL)

  • Carbon=Blue

  • Hydrogen=Red

  • Oxygen= Green

  • KEY:

  • (INTERNET MODEL)

  • Carbon=Blue

  • Hydrogen-White

  • Oxygen=Red

  • Oxygen and Hydrogen: Polar Covalent Bond

  • Carbon and Hydrogen: Nonpolar Covalent bond

  • Carbon and Carbon: Nonpolar Covalent Bond

  • Carbon and Oxygen: Polar Covalent Bond


What are the uses for ascorbic acid

Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways.

Ascorbic acid is easily oxidized and is used as a reductant in photographic developer solutions (among others) and as a preservative.

A vitamin used in preventing scurvy, as a strong reducing agent and as an antioxidant.

Ascorbic acid is added to many foods for its nutritive value, but is also used to prevent flavors and colors from being damaged by oxidation. It is often used in canned or frozen fruits to prevent the browning that accompanies oxidation.

Ascorbic acid prevents damage from oxygen free radicals.

Other uses: Assists delayed wound and bone healing, chronic disease (Asthma, Pre-eclampsia, Age-related Macular Degeneration, Osteoarthritis, Cancer, the Common Cold, High Blood Pressure, Heart Disease) and urine acidification.

WHAT ARE THE USES FOR ASCORBIC ACID?


How is ascorbic acid made
HOW IS ASCORBIC ACID MADE? necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways.

  • Steps 1 thru 9 (Starch Hydrolysis): Corn starch is broken down into simple sugar (D-Glucose) by the action of heat and enzymes. Step 10 (Hydrogenation): D-Glucose is converted into D-Sorbitol. Step 11 (Fermentation): D-Sorbitol is converted into L-Sorbose. Step 12 (Acetonation): L-Sorbose is combined with an acid at low temperatures. Step 13 (Oxidation): The product is then oxidized with a catalyst, acidified, washed and dried forming L-Gluconic Acid. Step 14 (Hydrolysis): L-Gluconic Acid is treated with hydrochloric acid forming crude ascorbic acid. Step 15 (Recrystallization): The crude ascorbic acid is filtered, purified and milled into a fine crystalline powder.


Benzoic Acid necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways.

By Sonia Ajmera and Alli Dillard


Common name
Common Name necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways.

Benzoic Acid


Iupac international union of pure and applied chemistry nomenclature
IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) Nomenclature

Benzoic Acid or

Benzene Carboxylic Acid


Benzoic acid
Benzoic Acid Nomenclature

  • Benzoic Acid was discovered in the 16th century.

  • Benzoic Acid consists of a carboxyl group attached to a phenyl group, and is thus the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid.

  • It is also known as carboxybenzene, benzene carboxylic acid, and phenylformic acid.


Empirical and molecular formulas
Empirical and Molecular Formulas Nomenclature

C₇H₆0₂

C₆H₅COOH


Molar mass1
Molar Mass Nomenclature

122.12 g/mol

C₇= 12.01115 x 7= 84.07805 84.07805

H₆= 1.0079 x 6= 6.0474 6.0474

O₂= 15.9994 x 2= 31.9988 +31.9988

122.12425

≈122.12


Structural formula1
Structural Formula Nomenclature

Carboxylic Acid (Functional Group)

O

C C

C C O H

C C

C

Phenyl carbon group

Carbon-Carbon: Non-polar covalent bond

Carbon-Oxygen: Polar Covalent

Carbon-Hydrogen: Non-polar covalent bond

Oxygen-Hydrogen: Polar covalent bond


Skeletal formula1
Skeletal Formula Nomenclature


Space filling model
Space Filling Model Nomenclature

Dark Gray: Carbon

Light Gray: Hydrogen

Red: Oxygen


Uses of benzoic acid
Uses of Benzoic Acid Nomenclature

  • One of the most common uses of Benzoic acid is as a food preservative.

  • It is used to preserve many different kinds of foods, including fruit juices, soft drinks, pickles, and salad dressings.

  • Uses for both benzoic acid and its derivatives include the pharmaceuticals and synthetic polymers.


Uses of benzoic acid continued
Uses of Benzoic Acid (continued) Nomenclature

  • Benzoic acid is used in Whitfield’s Ointment, which is used for the treatment of fungal skin diseases such as ringworm and athlete’s foot.

  • Benzoic acid is found in toothpastes and mouthwashes, cosmetics, and deodorants.

Whitfield’s Ointment


Uses of benzoic acid continued1
Uses of Benzoic Acid (continued) Nomenclature

  • Pure benzoic acid is a standard for bomb calorimetry because of its ease of purification by sublimation.

  • The industrial applications of Benzoic acid are as a corrosion inhibitor, as an additive to automotive engine antifreeze coolants and in other waterborne systems, as a dye intermediate, as a stabilizer in photographic processing and as a catalyst.


How is benzoic acid made
How is Benzoic Acid made? Nomenclature

  • Benzoic acid is prepared in the laboratory by the Grignard reaction, hydrolysis of benzonitrile (C6H5CN), or prolonged oxidation of alkyl benzenes with potassium permanganate regardless of the length of the alkyl group.

  • Benzoic acid is also produced commercially by partial oxidation of toluene with oxygen. This process is catalyzed by cobalt or manganese naphthenates. It uses cheap raw materials, proceeds in high yield, and is considered environmentally green.


Fruit Juices Nomenclature


Aspartic acid

Aspartic Acid Nomenclature

Natasha Parekh

Alexis Dabney

1st period


Name common and proper
Name (common and proper) Nomenclature

  • Common: Aspartic Acid

  • Proper: 2-Aminobutanedioic acid

  • It is also referred to as asparaginic acid and alpha-aminosuccinic acid


Empirical formula1
Empirical Formula Nomenclature

  • C4H7NO4

  • The empirical formula and the molecular formula are the same in the case of aspartic acid.


Molar mass2
Molar Mass Nomenclature

  • 133.10268 g/mol

  • 36.09% C

  • 5.30% H

  • 10.52% N

  • 48.08% O


Structural formula2
Structural Formula Nomenclature

Bonds

Oxygen and carbon- polar covalent

Carbon and carbon –nonpolar covalent

Carbon and hydrogen- nonpolar covalent

Carbon and nitrogen- nonpolar covalent

Nitrogen and hydrogen- polar covalent

Oxygen and hydrogen- polar covalent


Skeletal formula2
Skeletal Formula Nomenclature


Aspartic acid is an amino acid that is produced in organisms Nomenclature

This is a picture of aspartic acid


Space filling formula1
Space filling Formula Nomenclature


Uses of aspartic acid
Uses of Aspartic Acid Nomenclature

  • Aspartic acid is a non-essential amino acid. It is the precursor to several amino acids.

  • Three letter code: ASP

  • Letter Code: D

  • Codons: GAU and GAC

  • It is mainly used as heart disease medicine, liver function accelerant, ammonia antidote, and fatigue eliminating medication


Uses cont
Uses cont. Nomenclature

  • It is found in dairy, beef, poultry, and sprouting seeds.

  • It is very important in the metabolism when forming different amino acids

  • It is needed for stamina, brain health, and removes excess ammonia and other toxins from the bloodstream

  • It keeps the mind sharp by increasing concentrations of NADH in the brain.



How its made
How its made Nomenclature

  • Since aspartic acid is an amino acid, it is made from natural materials.

  • One method for making amino acids is fermentation. During fermentation, organisms convert nutrients to many components.

  • Raw materials are added enabling organisms to produce amino acids

  • Different kinds of enzymes are also involved in the process of fermentation.


Vanillin
Vanillin Nomenclature

  • 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde



Molar mass3
Molar Mass Nomenclature

  • C8 = 12.01x 6 = 72.06

  • H8 = 1.01 x 8 = 8.08

  • O3 = 16.00 x 3 = 48.00

    • 128.14 g/mol


Structural formula3
Structural Formula Nomenclature

All bonds are covalent bonds.


Skeletal formula3
Skeletal Formula Nomenclature


Space filling formula2
Space Filling Formula Nomenclature


Uses Nomenclature

  • A flavoring in sweet foods such as ice cream and chocolate.


Uses contd
Uses Contd. Nomenclature

  • Perfume

  • To hide the taste of medicine

  • Livestock fodder

  • Cleaning products


How it s made1
How it’s Made Nomenclature

The demand for vanilla flavoring has long exceeded the supply of vanilla beans. Because of this, vanillin now can be made through chemical synthesis. Vanillin was first synthesized from eugenol. Later it was synthesized from lignin-containing "brown liquor", a byproduct of the sulfite process for making wood pulp, but the lignin process is no longer popular because of environmental concerns. Today most vanillin is produced from the petrochemical raw material guaiacol. Several routes exist for synthesizing vanillin from guaiacol. At present, the most significant of these is the two-step process in which guaiacol reacts with glyoxylic acid by electrophilic aromatic substitution. The resulting vanilmandelic acid is then converted to vanillin by oxidative decarboxylation. In October 2007, Mayu Yamamoto of the International Medical Center of Japan developed a way to extract vanillin from cow dung.

  • The Chemical Way


How it s made2
How it’s Made Nomenclature

Natural vanillin is extracted from the seed pods of Vanilla planifola. As harvested, the green seed pods contain vanillin in the form of its β-D-glycoside. The green pods do not have the flavor or odor of vanilla. After being harvested, their flavor is developed by a months-long curing process.

  • The Natural Way


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