Examples of Organic Molecule Projects. Honors Chemistry Spring 2009. Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid ( Proper). By Jon Ericksen and Kathryn Marbury. Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is known as many more commonly used names, such as:. *2,4-D * Weedtrine -II *Aqua- Kleen *Barrage
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
By Jon Ericksen and Kathryn Marbury
C x 8= 96.08
H x 6= 6.06
Cl x 2= 70.90 = 221.04 g/mol
O x 3= 48.00
2,4-D is commonly prepared by the condensation of 2,4-dichlorophenol with monochloroacetic acid in a strongly alkaline medium at moderate temperatures (Canada, NRC, 1978; Sittig 1980; QueHee & Sutherland, 1981), or by the chlorination of phenoxyacetic acid, but this method leads to a product with a high content of 2,4-dichlorophenol and other impurities (Melnikov, l97l). Higher reaction temperatures and alkaline conditions during the manufacture of 2,4-D increase the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin (CDD) by-products (Fig. 2). The alkali metal salts of 2,4-D are produced by the reaction of 2,4-D with the appropriate metal base.
Amine salts are obtained by reacting stoichiometric quantities of amine and 2,4-D in a compatible solvent (QueHee & Sutherland, 1974, 1981). Esters are formed by acid-catalysedesterification with azeotropic distillation of water (QueHee & Sutherland, 1981) or by a direct synthesis in which the appropriate ester of monochloroacetic acid is reacted with dichlorophenol to form the 2,4-D ester (Canada, NRC, 1978).
2,4-D was developed during World War II by a British team, aiming to increase crop yields for a nation at war. When it was commercially released in1946, it became the first successful selective herbicide and allowed for greatly enhanced weed control in wheat, maize (corn), rice, and similar cereal grass crops, because it only kills dicots, leaving behind monocots. 2,4-D is the third most commonly used herbicide in North America and the most widely used herbicide in the world.
L-3-Ketothreohexuronic acid lactone
L-threo-hex-2-enonic acid, gamma lactone
Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways.
Ascorbic acid is easily oxidized and is used as a reductant in photographic developer solutions (among others) and as a preservative.
A vitamin used in preventing scurvy, as a strong reducing agent and as an antioxidant.
Ascorbic acid is added to many foods for its nutritive value, but is also used to prevent flavors and colors from being damaged by oxidation. It is often used in canned or frozen fruits to prevent the browning that accompanies oxidation.
Ascorbic acid prevents damage from oxygen free radicals.
Other uses: Assists delayed wound and bone healing, chronic disease (Asthma, Pre-eclampsia, Age-related Macular Degeneration, Osteoarthritis, Cancer, the Common Cold, High Blood Pressure, Heart Disease) and urine acidification.WHAT ARE THE USES FOR ASCORBIC ACID?
Benzoic Acid necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways.
By Sonia Ajmera and Alli Dillard
Benzoic Acid or
Benzene Carboxylic Acid
C₇= 12.01115 x 7= 84.07805 84.07805
H₆= 1.0079 x 6= 6.0474 6.0474
O₂= 15.9994 x 2= 31.9988 +31.9988
Carboxylic Acid (Functional Group)
C C O H
Phenyl carbon group
Carbon-Carbon: Non-polar covalent bond
Carbon-Oxygen: Polar Covalent
Carbon-Hydrogen: Non-polar covalent bond
Oxygen-Hydrogen: Polar covalent bond
Dark Gray: Carbon
Light Gray: Hydrogen
Fruit Juices Nomenclature
Oxygen and carbon- polar covalent
Carbon and carbon –nonpolar covalent
Carbon and hydrogen- nonpolar covalent
Carbon and nitrogen- nonpolar covalent
Nitrogen and hydrogen- polar covalent
Oxygen and hydrogen- polar covalent
This is a picture of aspartic acid
A bottle of Aspartic Acid Nomenclature
All bonds are covalent bonds.
The demand for vanilla flavoring has long exceeded the supply of vanilla beans. Because of this, vanillin now can be made through chemical synthesis. Vanillin was first synthesized from eugenol. Later it was synthesized from lignin-containing "brown liquor", a byproduct of the sulfite process for making wood pulp, but the lignin process is no longer popular because of environmental concerns. Today most vanillin is produced from the petrochemical raw material guaiacol. Several routes exist for synthesizing vanillin from guaiacol. At present, the most significant of these is the two-step process in which guaiacol reacts with glyoxylic acid by electrophilic aromatic substitution. The resulting vanilmandelic acid is then converted to vanillin by oxidative decarboxylation. In October 2007, Mayu Yamamoto of the International Medical Center of Japan developed a way to extract vanillin from cow dung.
Natural vanillin is extracted from the seed pods of Vanilla planifola. As harvested, the green seed pods contain vanillin in the form of its β-D-glycoside. The green pods do not have the flavor or odor of vanilla. After being harvested, their flavor is developed by a months-long curing process.