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Chemistry, The Central Science , 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements. John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO. Development of Periodic Table.

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Chapter 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements

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Chapter 7 periodic properties of the elements l.jpg

Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition

Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.;

and Bruce E. Bursten

Chapter 7Periodic Propertiesof the Elements

John D. Bookstaver

St. Charles Community College

Cottleville, MO

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Development of Periodic Table

  • Elements in the same group generally have similar chemical properties.

  • Physical properties are not necessarily similar, however.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Development of Periodic Table

Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer independently came to the same conclusion about how elements should be grouped.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Development of Periodic Table

Mendeleev, for instance, predicted the discovery of germanium (which he called eka-silicon) as an element with an atomic weight between that of zinc and arsenic, but with chemical properties similar to those of silicon.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Periodic Trends

  • In this chapter, we will rationalize observed trends in

    • Sizes of atoms and ions.

    • Ionization energy.

    • Electron affinity.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Effective Nuclear Charge

  • In a many-electron atom, electrons are both attracted to the nucleus and repelled by other electrons.

  • The nuclear charge that an electron experiences depends on both factors.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Effective Nuclear Charge

The effective nuclear charge, Zeff, is found this way:

Zeff = Z − S

where Z is the atomic number and S is a screening constant, usually close to the number of inner electrons.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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What Is the Size of an Atom?

The bonding atomic radius is defined as one-half of the distance between covalently bonded nuclei.

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Sizes of Atoms

Bonding atomic radius tends to…

…decrease from left to right across a row

(due to increasing Zeff).

…increase from top to bottom of a column

(due to increasing value of n).

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Sizes of Ions

  • Ionic size depends upon:

    • The nuclear charge.

    • The number of electrons.

    • The orbitals in which electrons reside.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Sizes of Ions

  • Cations are smaller than their parent atoms.

    • The outermost electron is removed and repulsions between electrons are reduced.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Sizes of Ions

  • Anions are larger than their parent atoms.

    • Electrons are added and repulsions between electrons are increased.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Sizes of Ions

  • Ions increase in size as you go down a column.

    • This is due to increasing value of n.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Sizes of Ions

  • In an isoelectronic series, ions have the same number of electrons.

  • Ionic size decreases with an increasing nuclear charge.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Ionization Energy

  • The ionization energy is the amount of energy required to remove an electron from the ground state of a gaseous atom or ion.

    • The first ionization energy is that energy required to remove first electron.

    • The second ionization energy is that energy required to remove second electron, etc.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Ionization Energy

  • It requires more energy to remove each successive electron.

  • When all valence electrons have been removed, the ionization energy takes a quantum leap.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Trends in First Ionization Energies

  • As one goes down a column, less energy is required to remove the first electron.

    • For atoms in the same group, Zeff is essentially the same, but the valence electrons are farther from the nucleus.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Trends in First Ionization Energies

  • Generally, as one goes across a row, it gets harder to remove an electron.

    • As you go from left to right, Zeff increases.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Trends in First Ionization Energies

However, there are two apparent discontinuities in this trend.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Trends in First Ionization Energies

  • The first occurs between Groups IIA and IIIA.

  • In this case the electron is removed from a p-orbital rather than an s-orbital.

    • The electron removed is farther from nucleus.

    • There is also a small amount of repulsion by the s electrons.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Trends in First Ionization Energies

  • The second occurs between Groups VA and VIA.

    • The electron removed comes from doubly occupied orbital.

    • Repulsion from the other electron in the orbital aids in its removal.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Electron Affinity

Electron affinity is the energy change accompanying the addition of an electron to a gaseous atom:

Cl + e− Cl−

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Trends in Electron Affinity

In general, electron affinity becomes more exothermic as you go from left to right across a row.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Trends in Electron Affinity

There are again, however, two discontinuities in this trend.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Trends in Electron Affinity

  • The first occurs between Groups IA and IIA.

    • The added electron must go in a p-orbital, not an s-orbital.

    • The electron is farther from nucleus and feels repulsion from the s-electrons.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Trends in Electron Affinity

  • The second occurs between Groups IVA and VA.

    • Group VA has no empty orbitals.

    • The extra electron must go into an already occupied orbital, creating repulsion.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Properties of Metal, Nonmetals,and Metalloids

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Metals versus Nonmetals

Differences between metals and nonmetals tend to revolve around these properties.

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Metals versus Nonmetals

  • Metals tend to form cations.

  • Nonmetals tend to form anions.

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Metals

They tend to be lustrous, malleable, ductile, and good conductors of heat and electricity.

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Metals

  • Compounds formed between metals and nonmetals tend to be ionic.

  • Metal oxides tend to be basic.

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Nonmetals

  • These are dull, brittle substances that are poor conductors of heat and electricity.

  • They tend to gain electrons in reactions with metals to acquire a noble gas configuration.

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Nonmetals

  • Substances containing only nonmetals are molecular compounds.

  • Most nonmetal oxides are acidic.

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Metalloids

  • These have some characteristics of metals and some of nonmetals.

  • For instance, silicon looks shiny, but is brittle and fairly poor conductor.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Group Trends

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Alkali Metals

  • Alkali metals are soft, metallic solids.

  • The name comes from the Arabic word for ashes.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Alkali Metals

  • They are found only in compounds in nature, not in their elemental forms.

  • They have low densities and melting points.

  • They also have low ionization energies.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Alkali Metals

Their reactions with water are famously exothermic.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Alkali Metals

  • Alkali metals (except Li) react with oxygen to form peroxides.

  • K, Rb, and Cs also form superoxides:

    K + O2 KO2

  • They produce bright colors when placed in a flame.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Alkaline Earth Metals

  • Alkaline earth metals have higher densities and melting points than alkali metals.

  • Their ionization energies are low, but not as low as those of alkali metals.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Alkaline Earth Metals

  • Berylliumdoes not react with water and magnesium reacts only with steam, but the others react readily with water.

  • Reactivity tends to increase as you go down the group.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Group 6A

  • Oxygen, sulfur, and selenium are nonmetals.

  • Tellurium is a metalloid.

  • The radioactive polonium is a metal.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Oxygen

  • There are two allotropes of oxygen:

    • O2

    • O3, ozone

  • There can be three anions:

    • O2−, oxide

    • O22−, peroxide

    • O21−, superoxide

  • It tends to take electrons from other elements (oxidation).

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Sulfur

  • Sulfur is a weaker oxidizer than oxygen.

  • The most stable allotrope is S8, a ringed molecule.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Group VIIA: Halogens

  • The halogens are prototypical nonmetals.

  • The name comes from the Greek words halos and gennao: “salt formers”.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Group VIIA: Halogens

  • They have large, negative electron affinities.

    • Therefore, they tend to oxidize other elements easily.

  • They react directly with metals to form metal halides.

  • Chlorine is added to water supplies to serve as a disinfectant

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Group VIIIA: Noble Gases

  • The noble gases have astronomical ionization energies.

  • Their electron affinities are positive.

    • Therefore, they are relatively unreactive.

  • They are found as monatomic gases.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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Group VIIIA: Noble Gases

  • Xe forms three compounds:

    • XeF2

    • XeF4 (at right)

    • XeF6

  • Kr forms only one stable compound:

    • KrF2

  • The unstable HArF was synthesized in 2000.

© 2009, Prentice-Hall, Inc.


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