Writing Scientific English. Four levels of organization: Word use Sentence structure Paragraph structure Paper/thesis organization and format. Word Use. Jargon Know thy audience Use the simplest, most efficient wording Avoid the most frequent mistakes data/datum
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the freshwater eels were transferred to sea water
the seawater eels were transferred to fresh water
hyphenation for creating adjectives:
the Na,K-ATPase was sensitive to ouabain
the ouabain-sensitive Na,K-ATPase….
The data were significantly….
A necropsy was conducted on a dolphin that washed up on the beach.
The dolphin, which had previously been tagged, was found in Beaufort.
The following are quoted from:
Tipton, C.M. 1991 Publishing in peer-reviewed
journals - fundamentals for new investigators.
The Physiologist 34: 275, 278-279.
“It is very difficult to publish data in peer-reviewed journals
from studies that are flawed by their purposes, designs, and
methodologies regardless of how well they are presented.”
“There are now well over 40,000 scientific and
technical journals published throughout the world…
most of the significant literature is published within
1,000 journals or less.”
“As a basic rule, the investigator should first consider
the journal of his/her professional society.”
“The simplest approach is for the author to ask the question,
‘Who do I want to read and be influenced by my
“Once the journal has been identified, it is essential that
the instructions to authors be read before submitting
the desired number of copies to a given address.”
“Before the two or three reviewers are selected, the
corresponding editor first examines the subject area
of the study as well as the title, abstract, text, key words,
and references. In addition, they check their files for
the names of individuals who have expertise in the areas
identified within the manuscript.”
“The end result is that the abstract, title, and references
become extremely important considerations in the
selection of reviewers.”
comments on the strong and weak points of the
manuscript. “This information plus comments on
the critique form is used by the corresponding editor
to inform the author of the ‘fate’ of the manuscript.”
“It is most unlikely that any submitted manuscripts will
be accepted for publication without revision. Within APS
journals, the acceptance rate ranges from 52% to 72%
with the average around 60%.
…many manuscripts require two revisions and some three
before they are accepted for publication.”
science, the purposes of the journal, the viewpoints of
the reviewers, and the integrity of the data with the
convictions of the investigators.”
“In the main, the reviewer’s opinions are upheld, although
all corresponding editors are sensitive to the opinions of
authors and receptive to appeals or requests for expert input.”
“As a general rule, authors of rejected manuscripts should
reflect on the reasons for at least four weeks before
accepting the generalization that the editors and reviewers
are ignorant, insensitive, and prejudiced against them and
their research area.”
Use the “guide to authors” for your journal
12.2 24.7 55.6 37.2 124.7 291.3 21.4 76.8 11.9 292.3