Chemical Bonds
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 38

Chemical Bonds PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 92 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chemical Bonds. Sodium. Name. 11. Atomic Number. Na. Symbol. 22.990. Atomic Mass. +. +. +. +. +. proton. +. +. +. +. neutron. +. +. +. -. electron. nucleus. Orbital Notation. Electron Configuration. Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure. Chemical Bonds. +. +. +. +. +.

Download Presentation

Chemical Bonds

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

Sodium

Name

11

Atomic Number

Na

Symbol

22.990

Atomic Mass

+

+

+

+

+

proton

+

+

+

+

neutron

+

+

+

-

electron

nucleus

Orbital Notation

Electron Configuration

Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

nucleus

Sodium

Name

11

Atomic Number

Na

Symbol

22.990

Atomic Mass

1s

2s

+

proton

-

-

neutron

-

electron

electron cloud

Na

Orbital Notation

1s

Na

1s2

Electron Configuration

Na

Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

nucleus

Sodium

Name

11

Atomic Number

Na

Symbol

22.990

Atomic Mass

1s

-

2s

+

proton

-

-

2px

-

neutron

-

-

electron

electron cloud

Na

Orbital Notation

1s

2s

2p

Na

1s2

2s2

Electron Configuration

Na

Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

nucleus

Na

Orbital Notation

1s

2s

2p

Na

1s2

2s2

Electron Configuration

Na

Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure

Sodium

Name

11

Atomic Number

Na

Symbol

22.990

Atomic Mass

1s

-

-

2s

-

+

proton

-

-

2px

-

neutron

2py

-

-

electron

2pz

electron cloud


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

nucleus

Na

Orbital Notation

1s

2s

2p

Na

1s2

2s2

Electron Configuration

Na

Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure

Sodium

Name

11

Atomic Number

Na

Symbol

22.990

Atomic Mass

1s

-

-

2s

-

-

+

proton

-

-

2px

-

-

neutron

-

2py

-

-

electron

2pz

electron cloud

2p6


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

nucleus

Na

Orbital Notation

1s

2s

2p

Na

1s2

2s2

Electron Configuration

Na

Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure

Sodium

Name

11

Atomic Number

Na

Symbol

22.990

Atomic Mass

1s

-

-

-

2s

-

-

+

proton

-

-

2px

-

-

neutron

-

2py

-

-

electron

3s

2pz

electron cloud

3s

2p6

3s1


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

1s

-

+

+

+

+

-

-

2s

-

-

+

+

+

+

-

-

2px

-

-

-

2py

+

+

+

-

3s

2pz

nucleus

1s

2s

3s

2p

Na

1s2

2s2

2p6

3s1

Sodium

Name

11

Atomic Number

Na

Symbol

22.990

Atomic Mass

+

proton

neutron

-

electron

electron cloud

Na

Orbital Notation

Electron Configuration

Na

Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

Chlorine

Name

17

Atomic Number

Cl

Symbol

35.453

Atomic Mass

+

+

+

+

+

+

proton

+

+

+

+

+

neutron

+

+

+

+

+

-

electron

+

+

nucleus

Orbital Notation

Electron Configuration

Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

Chlorine

Name

17

Atomic Number

Cl

Symbol

35.453

Atomic Mass

1s

+

+

+

+

+

2s

+

proton

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

neutron

+

+

+

+

+

-

electron

+

+

nucleus

electron cloud

Cl

Orbital Notation

1s

Cl

1s2

Electron Configuration

Cl

Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

Chlorine

Name

17

Atomic Number

Cl

Symbol

35.453

Atomic Mass

1s

-

+

+

+

+

+

2s

+

proton

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

2px

-

neutron

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

electron

+

+

nucleus

electron cloud

Cl

Orbital Notation

1s

2s

2p

Cl

1s2

2s2

Electron Configuration

Cl

Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

Chlorine

Name

17

Atomic Number

Cl

Symbol

35.453

Atomic Mass

1s

-

+

+

+

+

+

-

2s

-

+

proton

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

2px

-

neutron

2py

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

electron

+

+

2pz

nucleus

electron cloud

Cl

Orbital Notation

1s

2s

2p

Cl

1s2

2s2

Electron Configuration

Cl

Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

Chlorine

Name

17

Atomic Number

Cl

Symbol

35.453

Atomic Mass

1s

-

+

+

+

+

+

-

2s

-

-

+

proton

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

2px

-

-

neutron

-

2py

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

electron

+

+

2pz

nucleus

electron cloud

Cl

Orbital Notation

1s

2s

2p

Cl

1s2

2s2

2p6

Electron Configuration

Cl

Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

3pz

3py

Chlorine

Name

17

Atomic Number

Cl

3px

Symbol

35.453

Atomic Mass

1s

-

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

2s

-

-

+

proton

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

-

2px

-

-

-

neutron

-

-

2py

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

electron

3s

-

+

+

2pz

nucleus

electron cloud

Cl

Orbital Notation

1s

2s

3s

2p

3p

Cl

1s2

2s2

2p6

3s2

Electron Configuration

Cl

Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

3pz

3py

Chlorine

Name

17

Atomic Number

Cl

3px

Symbol

35.453

Atomic Mass

1s

-

-

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

2s

-

-

+

proton

-

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

-

2px

-

-

-

neutron

-

-

2py

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

electron

3s

-

+

+

2pz

nucleus

electron cloud

Cl

Orbital Notation

1s

2s

3s

2p

3p

Cl

1s2

2s2

2p6

3s2

3p5

Electron Configuration

Cl

Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

Name

Atomic Number

Be

Symbol

Atomic Mass

+

proton

neutron

-

electron

nucleus

electron cloud

Be

Orbital Notation

Be

Electron Configuration

Be

Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

Beryllium

Name

4

Atomic Number

Be

Symbol

9.012

Atomic Mass

1s

-

2s

+

+

proton

+

-

-

neutron

+

+

-

-

electron

nucleus

electron cloud

Be

Orbital Notation

1s

2s

Be

1s2

2s2

Electron Configuration

Be

Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Oxygen

Name

8

Atomic Number

O

Symbol

15.999

Atomic Mass

1s

-

-

2s

-

-

+

proton

-

-

2px

-

neutron

2py

-

-

electron

2pz

nucleus

electron cloud

O

Orbital Notation

1s

2s

2p

O

1s2

2s2

2p4

Electron Configuration

O

Electron-Dot (Lewis-Dot) Structure


Chemical bonds

Draw orbital notations for the following:

Draw electron configurations for the following:

Draw electron-dot (Lewis-Dot)

structures for the following:

1s2

2s2

2p2

1s

2s

2p

1s2

2s2

2p6

1s

2s

2p

1s2

2s2

2p6

3s2

1s

2s

3s

2p

1s2

2s2

2p6

3s2

3p3

2p

2p

1s

2s

3s

3p

Ca

1s2

2s2

2p6

3s2

3p6

4s2

3s

1s

2s

4s

3p

C

C

C

Ne

Ne

Ne

Mg

Mg

Mg

P

P

P

Ca

Ca


Chemical bonds

Forming an Ionic Bond

+

Na

-

Cl

+

Be

Na

+

1s

2s

-O

Be+

-

2p

+

3s

O

O

-

-

2s

Na

-Cl

Sodium chloride

Na+

Cl

Cl

1s

2s

3s

2p

3p

Be

Be

1s

Beryllium oxide

O

1s

2s

2p


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bond

-the force that holds two atoms together

-Cl

-O

Na+

Be+

-

+

-formation of chemical bonds allows atoms to form a

Noble Gas configuration of valence electrons, allowing

them to become more stable and exist at a lower state of

potential energy

A. Ionic Bond

-chemical bond formed by the exchange of

electrons between a very electropositive atom

(metal) and a very electronegative atom (nonmetal)

which results in the formation of oppositely-

charged ions, which are strongly attracted to each-

other

Ionic compounds

-electronegativity is the tendency for an atom to

attract electrons in order to form a chemical bond


Chemical bonds

A. Ionic Bond

-ionic bonds are those that have a relative

electronegativity difference of more than 1.7

2.1

-the electronegativity difference is ______ in

Sodium chloride and ______ in Beryllium oxide

2.0


Chemical bonds

Chemical Formula

Name

6. Na___O___

5. Na___O___

9. Na___O___

4. Na___O___

7. Na___O___

8. Na___O___

2. Be___Cl___

1. Na___O___

3. K___Br___

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________

_______________


Chemical bonds

Properties of Ionic Compounds

-when ionic compounds form, they form

a _____________, a ________________

_________ arrangement of _______ and

________ ions

Na

Na

Na

Na

Na

Na

Na

Na

Na

Na

Na

Na

Na

Na

Na

Na

Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

crystal lattice

three-dimensional

geometric

positive

negative

-the energy required to separate _______

(6.02 x 1023) of ions from each other is

called the ________________, the more

________ the lattice energy, the ______

the attraction between ions

one mole

lattice energy

negative

stronger

-the strength of the attraction between

ions affects the compound’s __________

_________

physical

properties


Chemical bonds

Properties of Ionic Compounds

A. Lattice Energy

LiF

-1032

-gather data

LiCl

-852

LiBr

-815

LiI

-761

NaF

-926

NaCl

-786

NaBr

-752

NaI

-702

KF

-813

KCl

-717

KBr

-689

KI

-649


Chemical bonds

Properties of Ionic Compounds

A. Lattice Energy

-analyze data

0

-200

-400

F

Cl

-600

Br

-800

I

-1000

-1200

Li

Na

K


Chemical bonds

Properties of Ionic Compounds

A. Lattice Energy

-draw conclusions

-the lattice energy is more negative in ionic

compounds that have ____________________,

because the ions are ___________________ to

each other

smaller ionic radii

more strongly attracted

B. Melting and

Boiling Points

-gather data

NaI

660

1304

KBr

734

1435

NaBr

747

1390

CaCl2

782

1600

Cal2

1100

784

NaCl

1413

801

MgO

2852

3600


Chemical bonds

Properties of Ionic Compounds

B. Melting and

Boiling Points

-draw conclusions

-ionic compounds with higher lattice energies

have _________melting and boiling points temps.

higher

-smaller ions are more ________ attracted to each

other, because the _______ is closer to the

_______ _________, while ions with larger

positive and negative charges are more

________ attracted to each other

strongly

nucleus

valence

electrons

strongly

C. Electrical Conductivity

-to conduct electricity, charged particles

must be _________________, so ionic

compounds generally do not conduct

electricity as a _____, but generally do

as a ______ or when ______________

_______________

free to move

solid

liquid

dissolved in water

(electrolyte)


Chemical bonds

Properties of Ionic Compounds

D. Hardness

-the ions in ionic compounds with _______________

lattice energies are more _________ attracted to each

other, so they tend to be ________

more negative

strongly

harder

For Review

1. Rank the following ionic compounds, in order, from most negative

to least negative lattice energy: RbCl, RbF, RbBr, RbI

1. RbF

2. RbCl

3. RbBr

4. RbI

2. Rank the following ionic compounds, in order, from highest to lowest

melting point temperature: NaCl, MgCl2, MgO

1. MgO

2. MgCl2

3. NaCl

3. Rank the following ionic compounds, in order, from softest to

hardest: Li2O, Li2S, Li2Te, Li2Se

1. Li2Te

2. Li2Se

3. Li2S

4. Li2O

4. Rank the following ionic compounds, in order, from ions most strongly

to ions least strongly attracted to each other: MgF2, RbCl, CaF2,

CaCl2, MgO

1. MgO

2. MgF2

3. CaF2

4. CaCl2

5. RbCl


Chemical bonds

Naming Ionic Compounds

1. MgF2 ___________________

Magnesium fluoride

2. Rb2S ___________________

Rubidium sulfide

3. Ba(NO3)2 ___________________

Barium nitrate

4. (NH4)2Te ___________________

Ammonium telluride

5. (NH4)3PO4 ___________________

Ammonium phosphate

6. Na2SO4 ___________________

Sodium sulfate

7. Cu3P ___________________________________

Copper(I) phosphide or Cuprous phosphide

Iron(III) hydroxide or Ferric hydroxide

8. Fe(OH)3 ________________________________

9. Cr2(CO3)3 _______________________________________

Chromium(III) carbonate or Chromic carbonate

10. Sn(HCO3)4 __________________________________________

Tin(IV) Hydrogen carbonate or Stannic bicarbonate


Chemical bonds

Metallic Bonds

-like ionic compounds, metals in their ______ state form

________ structures

solid

lattice

-each metal atom contributes its _______ _________ to a

___________ _____ of electrons, which move freely

throughout the solid

valence

electrons

delocalized

sea

-without its ________ _________, each metal atom forms

a _________ _______

valence

electrons

metal

cation

-the attraction between the ________ _________ and the

_____________ ___________ is called a _________

_____

metallic

cation

delocalized

electrons

metallic

bond

Properties of Metals

-influenced strongly by the strength of attraction

between the _______ ________ and the number of

____________ ___________

metallic

cation

delocalized

electrons


Chemical bonds

Properties of Metals

A. Melting Point

-since it doesn’t matter where the _________

_______ are within the _______ __________ of

the metal, the cations _______ _________

easily, while still remaining in ______ _______

with each other, so ________ _______

temperatures are relatively ____

metallic

cations

lattice

structure

change

position

close

contact

melting

point

low

-the _________ the attraction between ________

________ and the ____ of ______________

__________, the ________ the melting point

temperature, so ________ atoms tend to have

_______ melting point temperatures.

stronger

metallic

cations

sea

delocalized

electrons

higher

smaller

higher


Chemical bonds

Properties of Metals

A. Melting Point

180

Lithium

98

Sodium

64

Potassium

39

Rubidium

Cesium

29

27

Francium

1278

Beryllium

660

Aluminum

Calcium

839

Strontium

764

Barium

725

Radium

700


Chemical bonds

Properties of Metals

A. Melting Point

-________ _______ temperatures are _________

by increasing the number of ________ ________

contributed to the _____ of ______________ __________. ___________ __________ like

_______ and _________ contribute their ______

________ electrons as well as their __________

__________ to the ____ of ________________

__________, __________ the melting point

temperature dramatically.

melting

point

increased

valence

electrons

sea

delocalized

electrons

Transition

elements

Copper

Tungsten

d

orbital

valence

electrons

sea

delocalized

electrons

increasing

Copper

1083

Tunsten

3410

Iron

1535

Chromium

1857

Silver

962


Chemical bonds

Properties of Metals

B. Malleability & Ductility

-because particles in a metal can easily

change position, they are __________,

or can be __________ _____ _______

or other shapes easily

malleable

hammered

into

sheets

-because particles in a metal can easily

change position, they are __________,

or can be __________ _____ _______

ductile

drawn

into

wires

C. Durability

& Boiling Point

-even though particles in a metal can easily change

position, they are __________ ____________,

to the ____ of __________ surrounding them, and

are __________ to _______ from the metal, giving

them a high ___________ and a high ________

______ temperature as well

strongly

attracted

sea

electrons

difficult

remove

durability

boiling

point


Chemical bonds

Properties of Metals

D. Conductivity

delocalized

electrons

-because __________ __________ in a metal are

_____ ___ _____ while keeping _________

______ intact, the __________ move _____ from

place to place easily, so metal are _____

___________ of _____

free

to

move

metallic

bonds

electrons

heat

good

conductors

heat

-because __________ __________ in a metal are

_____ ___ _____, they move easily as a part of an

________ ________ when an __________

__________ or ________ is applied to the metal,

and the ________ ________ structure of the

__________ ________ allows the __________ to

flow without _________ with the ________,

which allows for little __________

delocalized

electrons

free

to

move

electrical

current

electrical

potential

voltage

crystal

lattice

metallic

cations

electrons

colliding

cations

resistance


Chemical bonds

Properties of Metals

E. Luster

delocalized

electrons

-because ____________ ___________ are free to move,

they can interact with ______, __________ and

__________ ________ of _______, giving metals their

_______ ________

light

absorbing

releasing

photons

light

luster

(shine)

F. Hardness

& Strength

-as the number of ___________ __________

contributed to the ____ of _________ increases, the

strength of the _________ _____ increases, so metals

such as _______, which contribute ____ ________,

are relatively _____ and _____, while metals that

contribute their outer __ electrons plus their inner __

electrons such as _________, _____, or _______ are

relatively _____ and _______

delocalized

electrons

sea

electrons

metallic

bonds

Sodium

one

electron

soft

weak

s

d

Chromium

Iron

Nickel

hard

strong


Chemical bonds

Metal Alloys

-because it doesn’t matter what _________ the _________

________ are in in a metal, it is easy to introduce other

_________ __________ into the ________ structure of a

metal, creating an ______, or ________ of metals

position

metallic

cations

metallic

cations

lattice

alloy

mixture

-in ______________ _______, atoms of one kind of metal,

like _______, are replaced with atoms of another kind of

metal, like _______, to form an ______ like ________

_______, which has the properties of both metals. Pure

_____ is beautiful, rare, and almost completely _________,

and so is highly valuable, but it is too _____ to be of much

use by itself, so it is ________ with ________ and ______

to make _________ or _________ _____, which is still

beautiful, but much _______ and _________

substitutional

alloys

Silver

Copper

alloy

Sterling

Silver

Gold

unreactive

soft

alloyed

Silver

Copper

10 carat

14 carat

Gold

harder

durable

-in ______________ _______, atoms of another kind of

element, like _______, are inserted into the spaces in

between the cations of a metal like _____ to form _______

______, which is _______, ________, and less ________

than _____

interstitial

alloys

Carbon

Iron

Carbon

steel

harder

stronger

ductile

Iron


  • Login