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3. 3 South Africa Physiographic delineation – the area south of the Congo Basin Richest region in natural resources Two pivotal river systems The Zambezi The Orange-Vaal

4. 4 General Information Physiography & Climate Plateaus and “mountains” The Great Escarpment Does not have the volcanic activity that is present in East Africa Cooler climate due to altitude and latitude – four-season climates found in the southern part Most severe racial problems developed here

5. 5 The Northern Tier problems abound Angola Rich in minerals and agricultural potential – Oil-rich Cabinda Independence brought civil war and a devastated economy – ˝ country has been under rebel rule Zambia Landlocked position adds to the cost of exporting its minerals – decline in prices has hurt economy 1991 first multi-party democratic election in a long time brought a victory for democratic forces, but was short-lived as the country slid back toward dictatorship

6. 6 More Northern Tier Malawi – Landlocked country Almost completely agricultural economy 1970. Dr. Hastings Banda made president for life 1993 referendum favored a multi-party system 1994 Band ousted & charged with murder of opponents Moçambique – Took a Marxist route Economy collapsed under bad management Rebel movement was supported by South Africa Late 1990s some stability achieved Government abandoned Marxist principles

7. 7 Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia) Landlocked & mineral rich – Core area defined by the mineral-rich Great Dyke and its environs Whites originally encouraged to stay as citizens 1980s drought caused subsistence farmers to desert their land 1998 Mugabe government announced program to take land from whites and distribute it to African farmers – Economic decline problems from political mismanagement and corruption

8. 8 Namibia Former German colony which was made a Mandate territory to be administered by the Republic of South Africa South Africa used it as a colony rather than preparing it for independence Achieved independence in 1990 Largely desert habitat

9. 9 Botswana & Lesotho – landlocked Botswana Tswana dominant Bantu group – Bushmen relegated to the Kalahari Desert Economy – more productive in the north where it receives more precipitaiton Lesotho – enclave in South Africa Small, mountainous country – Very dependent on South Africa 1998 South African troops entered to quell a rebellion – the economy was badly damaged

10. 10 Swaziland & Madagascar Swaziland – Landlocked – surrounded by Mocambique and South Africa Agriculture – subsistence Mountainous and forested – attracts tourists King Mswati has ruled since 1986 Madagascar – unusual ecology – lemur home Agricultural economy – oil deposits may help People of African & Indonesian mix – rivalry exists Destruction of the forest habitats is a problem

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12. 12 Historical Geography Original inhabitants, Bushmen and Hottentots, were pushed out and/or eliminated by both Bantu and Europeans who arrived relatively recently.

13. 13 Compressed Time Line Dutch 1652 Capetown 1713, Khoikhoi displaced by Boers 1760 Dutch reach Orange River 1799 Third Kaffir War 1795-1815 British rule in Capetown begins Wars with the Bantu 1812, 1818, 1834, 1834 British end slavery in Capetown 1836-38 Boer Great Trek Boer conflicts with Bantu continue as they move north of Orange & Fish rivers 1860 Indian laborers 1870 Gold Rush 1880-81 British lose first Boer War 1899-1902 British win 2nd Boer War 1912 ANC formed 1948 Afrikaner Government began

14. 14 Apartheid: possibly the cruelest racial discrimination anywhere – begun after Afrikaner rule began Theory of “separate,” & not equal development Racial classifications system & passes European – only ones who could vote Asian – Gandhi began nonviolent resistance here Coloured – Cape coloured lost right to vote Bantu – citizens of Bantustans (poorest land <20%) 90 day detention act – can be extended to 180 Held without charge – no writ of habeas corpus No legal representation

15. 15 Apartheid Anti-communism act – punishment: imprisonment Defined communism as, among other things, criticism of the government Inconsistencies in applying the system Japanese made honorary Caucasians so they could stay at hotels reserved for whites Organs of black persons could be used for transplants in white people.

16. 16 Passbooks All aspects of life were affected by the passbook Where one lived What kinds of jobs one could have Where one could go With whom one could associate

17. 17 Quality of Bantu Life Bantu protest – reaction – riot (above) Housing in a Bantustan (left)

18. 18 Separate but not equal

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20. 20 Nelson Mandela – Man of the Century Candidate? Young lawyer – leader in the ANC Spent 27 years in prison – contracted illness Denied rights Separated from family Released from prison & negotiated with Prime Minister F. W. de Klerk to end Apartheid Elected first President Worked to create a homeland for all people regardless of their race or ethnic group.

21. 21 South Africa’s Challenge Overcome great economic & educational gap Make democracy work for all groups (10+ years since the end of Apartheid it’s still working) Achieve majority rule while protecting minority rights Curb violence Develop nationalism in place of tribalism Attract foreign capital to renew economic development

22. 22 South Africa’s Assets Rich in mineral resources Mid-latitude climates – agricultural possibilities Highest literacy rate in Africa Best infrastructure in Africa Outstanding leaders Nelson Mandela (1st & former president) Archbishop Desmond Tutu – Nobel Peace Prize Winner International sanctions have been lifted

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