Periodic trends
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Periodic Trends. For each slide with a periodic table - copy the definition. Copy ALL of the other slides. The purpose of this exercise is for you to be able to understand 4 periodic trends and how to predict them.

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Periodic Trends

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Periodic trends

Periodic Trends

  • For each slide with a periodic table - copy the definition. Copy ALL of the other slides.

  • The purpose of this exercise is for you to be able to understand 4 periodic trends and how to predict them.

  • You will need to know the definitions of the trends and be able to tell me whether two atoms are bigger are smaller, or have more ionization energy, etc. (memorize the diagram with the arrows)

  • Place the icons at the right over the numbers indicated by the range below the icon.


Periodic trends

H

13.6

H

13.6

How much love do atoms have for their electrons? Lots of love = lots of energy is needed to give up electrons for Ionic Bonds.

He

24.6

He

24.6

Li

5.4

Li

5.4

Be

9.3

Be

9.3

B

8.3

B

8.3

C

11.3

C

11.3

N

14.5

N

14.5

O

13.6

O

13.6

F

17.4

F

17.4

Ne

21.6

Ne

21.6

17-25

Na

5.1

Na

5.1

Mg

7.6

Mg

7.6

Al

6

Al

6

Si

8.2

Si

8.2

P

10.5

P

10.5

S

10.4

S

10.4

Cl

13

Cl

13

Ar

15.8

Ar

15.8

12.1-16.9

K

4.3

K

4.3

Ca

6.1

Ca

6.1

Ga

6

Ga

6

Ge

7.9

Ge

7.9

As

9.8

As

9.8

Se

9.8

Se

9.8

Br

11.8

Br

11.8

Kr

14

Kr

14

Rb

4.2

Rb

4.2

Sr

5.7

Sr

5.7

In

5.8

In

5.8

Sn

7.3

Sn

7.3

Sb

8.6

Sb

8.6

Te

9

Te

9

I

10.5

I

10.5

Xe

12.1

Xe

12.1

8.6-12

Cs

3.9

Cs

3.9

Ba

5.2

Ba

5.2

Tl

6.1

Tl

6.1

Pb

7.4

Pb

7.4

Bi

7.3

Bi

7.3

Po

8.4

Po

8.4

At

9.3

At

9.3

Rn

10.7

Rn

10.7

6-8.5

Fr

4.1

Fr

4.1

Ra

5.3

Ra

5.3

1st Ionization

3.9-5.8

Energy


1 st ionization energy

1st Ionization Energy

Helium loves its electrons. It would take a lot for it to give them up to make an ionic bond

He

24.6

Francium does not really like its electrons. It will give them up easily.

Fr

4.1


Periodic trends

H

2.2

H

2.2

How strong do atoms hold on to their electrons when sharing them in covalent bonds? Lots of strength = holds electrons closer to them when “sharing.”

He

He

Li

.98

Li

.98

Be

1.57

Be

1.57

B

2.04

B

2.04

C

2.55

C

2.55

N

3.04

N

3.04

O

3.44

O

3.44

F

3.96

F

3.96

Ne

Ne

3.9-4

Na

.93

Na

.93

Mg

1.31

Mg

1.31

Al

1.61

Al

1.61

Si

1.9

Si

1.9

P

2.1

P

2.1

S

2.5

S

2.5

Cl

3.16

Cl

3.16

Ar

Ar

3.01-3.89

K

.82

K

.82

Ca

1

Ca

1

Ga

1.81

Ga

1.81

Ge

2.01

Ge

2.01

As

2.18

As

2.18

Se

2.55

Se

2.55

Br

2.96

Br

2.96

Kr

Kr

Rb

.82

Rb

.82

Sr

.95

Sr

.95

In

1.78

In

1.78

Sn

1.96

Sn

1.96

Sb

2.05

Sb

2.05

Te

2.1

Te

2.1

I

2.66

I

2.66

Xe

Xe

2.01-3

Cs

.79

Cs

.79

Ba

.89

Ba

.89

Tl

1.8

Tl

1.8

Pb

1.9

Pb

1.9

Bi

1.9

Bi

1.9

Po

2

Po

2

At

2.2

At

2.2

Rn

Rn

1.01-2

Fr

.7

Fr

.7

Ra

.9

Ra

.9

Electronegativity

0-1


Electronegativity

Electronegativity

He

Helium is noble. It does not share.

Fluorine holds its electrons very close. It does not share well, but does share.

F

3.96

Fr

.7

Francium does not hold its electrons strong enough so it actually loses them. This leads to Ionic Bonds forming.


Periodic trends

H

37

H

37

Each row of the Periodic Table represents an energy level around the atom. So lower is bigger. Memorize that farther left is bigger.

He

31

He

31

31-80

Li

152

Li

152

Be

112

Be

112

B

85

B

85

C

77

C

77

N

75

N

75

O

73

O

73

F

72

F

72

Ne

71

Ne

71

81-100

Na

186

Na

186

Mg

160

Mg

160

Al

143

Al

143

Si

118

Si

118

P

110

P

110

S

103

S

103

Cl

100

Cl

100

Ar

98

Ar

98

101-159

K

227

K

227

Ca

197

Ca

197

Ga

135

Ga

135

Ge

122

Ge

122

As

120

As

120

Se

119

Se

119

Br

114

Br

114

Kr

112

Kr

112

Rb

248

Rb

248

Sr

215

Sr

215

In

167

In

167

Sn

140

Sn

140

Sb

140

Sb

140

Te

142

Te

142

I

133

I

133

Xe

131

Xe

131

160-269

Cs

265

Cs

265

Ba

215

Ba

215

Tl

170

Tl

170

Pb

146

Pb

146

Bi

150

Bi

150

Po

168

Po

168

At

140

At

140

Rn

140

Rn

140

Fr

282

Fr

282

Ra

223

Ra

223

Atomic Radii

270-300


Atomic radii

Atomic Radii

He

31

Helium is the smallest because it has the least energy levels and is farthest to the right

Francium is big because it has the most energy levels and is farthest to the left.

Fr

282


Periodic trends

The left side loses electrons and the right side gains electrons. More electrons repel further from the protons in the nucleus making the right side bigger. Atoms are also bigger further down on the chart.

H

H

He

He

15-40

Li

76

Li

76

Be

31

Be

31

B

20

B

20

C

15

C

15

N

146

N

146

O

140

O

140

F

133

F

133

Ne

Ne

41-60

Na

102

Na

102

Mg

72

Mg

72

Al

54

Al

54

Si

41

Si

41

P

212

P

212

S

184

S

184

Cl

181

Cl

181

Ar

Ar

61-100

K

138

K

138

Ca

100

Ca

100

Ga

62

Ga

62

Ge

53

Ge

53

As

222

As

222

Se

198

Se

198

Br

195

Br

195

Kr

Kr

Rb

152

Rb

152

Sr

118

Sr

118

In

81

In

81

Sn

71

Sn

71

Sb

62

Sb

62

Te

221

Te

221

I

220

I

220

Xe

Xe

101-170

Cs

167

Cs

167

Ba

135

Ba

135

Tl

95

Tl

95

Pb

84

Pb

84

Bi

74

Bi

74

Po

Po

At

At

Rn

Rn

Fr

194

Fr

194

Ra

Ra

171-200

Ionic Radii


Ionic radii

Ionic Radii

Helium is noble… It does not make ions because it does not want to lose its electrons.

He

Carbon loses 4 electrons making it small

C

15

Astatine gains 3 electrons and is pretty low making it big

As

222

Fr

194

Francium gains 1 electron and is high up making it medium.


Questions copy the following and paste it on your wiki to answer

QuestionsCopy the following and paste it on your wiki to answer

ATOMIC RADIUS - Rank the following from smallest to largest atomic radius.

1. Li, C, F 2. Li, Na, K 3. Ge, P, O

4. C, N, Al 5. Al, Cl, Ga 6. Describe the periodic trend

IONIC RADIUS - Rank the following from smallest to largest ionic radius.

7. Mg2+, Si4-, S2-8. Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+9. F-, Cl-, Br-

10. Ba2+, Cu2+, Zn2+11. Si4-, P3-, O2-12. Describe the periodic trend

IONIZATION ENERGY - Rank the following from lowest to highest ionization energy.

13. Mg, Si, S 14. Mg, Ca, Ba 15. F, Cl, Br

16. Ba, Cu, Ne 17. e. Si, P, He 18. Describe the periodic trend

ELECTRONEGATIVITY - Rank the following from lowest to highest electronegativity

19. Li, C, N 20. C, O, Ne 21. Si, P, O

22. K, Mg, P 23. S, F, He24. Describe the periodic trend


Periodic trends

  • Ionization Energy = energy to lose the outermost (valence) electron – Helium only has two electrons, so that outer electron is close to the nucleus and is strongly attracted to the nucleus – Francium has a lot of electrons so that outer electron is far from the nucleus and is weakly attracted to the nucleus

  • Electronegativity – similarly the electrons shared by fluorine would be closer to the nucleus than francium so fluorine holds onto the electrons harder – it is a mix of effective nuclear charge, shielding, and atomic radius

  • Atomic Radii – two trends – vertically the electrons go into shells further from the nucleus so it makes a new layer, like the layers of an onion – horizontally the electrons go into the same shell, so no new layers, but also more protons from left to right so the nucleus can pull harder on the layers making them closer and smaller

  • Ionic Radii – decent rule of thumb- adding electrons makes elements bigger as they repel each other and removing electrons makes elements smaller as there is less repulsion between the electrons


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