Emerging diseases
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Emerging Diseases . BIOL 119 Spring 2011 Filoviruses. Marburg. 1967 Laboratory animals Mystery disease 31 infected Terrifying threat. Filovirus. Nzara. June-August 1976 Different strains of Ebola (Ebola Zaire/Ebola Sudan) 151/284. Yambuku. Death Toll 280/318.

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Emerging Diseases

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Emerging diseases

Emerging Diseases

BIOL 119 Spring 2011

Filoviruses


Marburg

Marburg

  • 1967

  • Laboratory animals

  • Mystery disease

  • 31 infected

  • Terrifying threat

Filovirus


Nzara

Nzara

  • June-August 1976

  • Different strains of Ebola (Ebola Zaire/Ebola Sudan)

  • 151/284


Yambuku

Yambuku

Death Toll 280/318

EBO-Z surfaced shortly after the first Ebola outbreak in Sudan and killed 280 of the 318 people it infected. On September 1, 1976, four days after returning from a tour of northern Zaire, the index case, a 44 year-old male teacher at the Mission School, sought medical intervention for a febrile illness he thought to be malaria. He received a parenteral injection of chloroquine (an anti-malaria drug) from Yambuku Mission Hospital (YMH). YMH did not use disposable needles or sterilize the needles between uses. Parenteral injection was the primary mode of administering nearly all medicines, and Ebola-Zaire (EBO-Z) was quickly disseminated into the surrounding villages serviced by YMH. After 11 of its 17 staff members fell ill with EHF, YMH closed on September 30, 1976, 29 days after the index case received his injection of chloroquine. The WHO International Commission was formed on October 18th, and research teams were mobilized on October 30th. The last case of EBO-Z died on November 5, 1976. Transmission of Ebola during this outbreak occurred mainly through the use of contaminated needles to administer medicine.


Reston 1989

Reston, 1989

Philippine animals

Airborne

Lethal in monkeys but mild in humans


Kikwit 1995

Kikwit-1995

Death toll = 244/315


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